It was a simple letter asking for a place to study at Scotland's oldest university which helped start a revolution in higher education. A 140-ycar-old letter written by a lady calling for her to be allowed to study medicine at St Andrews University has been discovered by researchers. Written by Sophia Jex-Blake in 1873, the seven-page document, which urged the university to allow women to study medicine at the institution, was released yesterday on International Women's Day.
The document was buried in the university archives（档案）by part-time history student Lis Smith, who is completing her PhD at St Andrews Institute of Scottish I listorical Research. She said: "We knew that Sophia Jex-Blake and her supporters, in their effort to open up university medical education for women, had written t0 the Senatus Academicus(校评议委员会) at St Andrews in an attempt to gain permission to attend classes there, but we didn't know documentary evidence existed. While searching the archives for information certificate for women, I was astonished to come across Jex-Blake wrote." about the university's higher what must be the very letter Jex-Blake.”
In the letter. Sophia and her supporters offered to hire teachers or build suitable buildings for a medical school and to arrange for lectures' 7o be delivered in the subjects not already covered at St Andrews. Although her letter was not successful, it eventually led to the establishment of the Ladies Literate in Arts at St Andrews, a distance-learning degree for women. The qualification, which ran from 1877 until the 1930s, gave women access to university education in the days before they were admitted as students. It was so popular that it survived long after women were admitted as full students to St Andrews in 1892.
Ms Jcx-Blake went on to help establish the London School of Medicine for Women in 1874. She was accepted by the University of Berne, where she was awarded a medical degree in January 1877. Eventually, she moved back to Edinburgh and opened her own practice.
59. Sophia wrote a letter to St Andrews University because she wanted
A. to carry out a research project there
B. to set up a medical institute there
C. to study medicine there
D. to deliver lectures there
60. Lis Smith found Sophia's letter to St Andrcws University
A. by pure chance
B. in the school office
C. with her supporters' help
D. while reading history books
61. Sophia's letter resulted in the establishment of
A. the London School of Medicine for Women
B. a degree programme for women
C. a system of medical education
D. the University of l3eme
62. When did $t andrews Univesity begin to take full-time women students?
B. In 1874.
C. In 1877.
D. In 1892.
How is it that siblings(兄弟姐妹) can turn out so diffcrcntly? One answer is that in fact each sibling grows up in a different family. The firstborn is, for a while, an only child, and therefore has a completely different experience of the parents than those born later. The next child is, for a while, the youngest, until the situation is changed by a new arrival. The mother and father themselves arc changing and growing up too. One sibling might live in a stable and close family in the first few years; another might be raised in a family crisis, with a disappointed mother or an angry father.
Sibling competition was identified as an important shaping force as early as in 1918. But more recently, researchers have found many ways in which brothers and sisters are a lasting force in each others' lives. Dr. Annette Henderson says firstborn children pick up vocabulary more quickly than their siblings. The reason for this might be that the later children aren't getting the same one-on-one time with parents.But that doesn't mean that the younger children have problems with language development. Later-boors don't enjoy that much talking time with parents, but instead they harvest lessons from bigger brothers and sisters, learning entire phrases and getting an understanding of social concepts such as the difference between "I" and "me”.
A Cambridge University study of 140 children found that siblings created a rich world of play that helped them grow socially. Love-hate relationships were common among the children. Even those siblings who fought the most had just as much positive communication as the other sibling pairs.
One way children seek more attention from parents is by making themselves different from their siblings, particularly if they are close in age. Researchers have found that the first two children in a family are typically more different from each other than the second and third. Girls with brothers show their differences to a maximum degree by being more feminine than girls with sisters. A 2003 research paper studied adolescents from 185 families over two years, finding that those who changed to make themselves different from their siblings were successful in increasing the amount of warmth they gained from their parents.
63. The underlined part "in a different family" (in Para. 1) means“______”。
A. in a different family environment
B. in a different family tradition
C．in different family crises
D．in different families
64. In terms of language development, Iater-borns _____.
A. get their parents' individual guidance
B. learn a lot from their eider siblings
C. experience a lot of difficulties
D. pick up words more quickly
65. What was found about fights among siblings?
A. Siblings hated fighting and loved playing.
B. Siblings in some families fought frequently.
C. Sibling fights led to bad sibling relationships.
D. Siblings learned to get on together from tights.
66. The word “feminine" (in Para. 4) means“_____________”.
A. having qualities of parents
B. having qualities of women
C. having defensive qualities
D. having extraordinary qualities
Brriiinnng. The alarm clock announces the start of another busy weekday in the morning. You jump out of bed, rush into the shower, into your clothes and out the door with hardly a moment一。think. A stressful journey to work gets your blood pressure climbing. Once at the office, you glance through the newspaper with depressing stories or reports of disasters. In that sort of mood, who can get down to work, particularly some creative, original problem-solving work?
The way most of us spend our mornings is exactly opposite to the conditions that promote flexible, open-minded thinking. Imaginative ideas arc most likely to come to us when we're unfocused. If you arc one of those evening when your are relaxed. Sleepy people's lack of focus leads to an increase in creative problem solving. By not giving yourself time to tune into your wandering mind, you're missing out on the surprising solutions it may offer.
The trip you take to work doesn't help, either. The stress slows down the speed with which signals travel between neurons（神经细胞），making inspirations less likely to occur. And while we all should read a lot about what' s going on in the world, it would not make you feel good for sure, so put that news website or newspaper aside until after the day's work is done.
So what would our mornings look like if we wanted to start them with a full capacity for creative problem solving? We'd set the alarm a few minutes early and lie awake in bed, following our thoughts where they lead. We'd stand a little longer under the wart water of the shower, stopping thinking about tasks in favor of a few more minutes of relaxation. We'd take some deep breaths on our way to work, instead of complaining about heavy traffic. And once in the office一一we'd click on links not to the news of the day but to the funniest videos the web has to offer.
67. According to the author. we arc more creative when we are_______.
68. What does the author imply about newspapers?
A. They are solution providers.
B. They are a source of inspiration.
C. They are normally full of bad news.
D. They are more educational than websites.
69. By "tune into your wandering mind" (in Para. 2), the author means” ”
A. wander into the wild
B. listen to a beautiful tune
C. switch to the traffic channel
D. stop concentrating on anything
70. Thee author writes the last paragraph in order to
A．offer practical suggestions
B. summarize past experiences
C. advocate diverse ways of life
D. establish a routine for the future