The first thing one has to understand about lying is that there are at least five different types of liars: the model of absolute integrity, the real straight-shooter, the pragmatic fibber, a real Pinocchio and the compulsive liar, according to sociologist – anthropologist Dr. Gina Graham Scott.
Dr. Robert G. Newby, the professor of sociology at Central Michigan University, believes that men are more likely to tell lies than women. “Men are more concerned about how they present themselves in public, the impression they make on people and things like that,” he says. “Men are always trying to impress people in the work and want to make sure that their presentation of self is one that makes them look good.” Women, on the other hand, Dr. Newby believes, are more private people and their relationship tends to be more interpersonal, as opposed to having to put on a public face. Women are more vulnerable and they are not as likely to try to pull the wool over someone’s eyes like men.
Dr Ronn Elmore, Los Angeles-based relationship counselor, does not believe that lying is based on gender. “But I believe when women lie it tends to be verbal, plain old-fashioned lies with words. But when men lie, it is often nonverbal, as in doing what he says he would not do or not doing what he promised he would do. Either way, it’s a lie, male version or female version. It is the opposite of integrity.”
Vesta Callender, psychotherapist in New York City, also agrees that one’s gender does not play a role in lying, but men and women do lie differently. “Women concern more while lying. They plan better,” Callender notes. “They create a history around the lie, and they try to project into the future what might happen if the lie is detected. With a woman, a lie has a beginning, a middle and an end. It’s a real entanglement.” Callender believes that men “tend to lie for the moment or to get out of a situation. Men think less about how the lie can be detected.”
All of us communicate with one another non-verbally, as well as with words. We gesture with eyepows or a hand, meet someone else’s eyes and look away, shift positions in a chair. These actions we assume are random and incidental. But researchers have discovered in recent years that there is a system to them almost as consistent and comprehensive as language.
Every culture has its own body language, and children absorb its difference along with spoken language. A Frenchman talks and moves in French. The way an Englishman crosses his legs is nothing like the way a male American does it. In talking, with a future-tense verb, Americans often gesture with a forward movement.
There are regional idioms too. An expert can sometimes pick out a native of Wisconsin just by the way he uses his eyepows during conversation. Your sex, moral background, social class and personal style all influence your body language.
Usually, the wordless communication acts to qualify the words. What the non-verbal elements express very often, and very efficiently, is the emotional side of the message. When a person feels liked or disliked, often it’s a case of “not what he said but the way he said it.” Psychologist Albert Mehrabian has come up with this formula: total impact of a message = 7% verbal + 38% gestural + 55% facial.
Experts in kinesics – the study of communication through body movement – are not prepared to spell out a vocabulary or gestures. When an American rubs his nose, it may mean he is disagreeing with someone or rejecting something. But there are other possible interpretations, too. Another example: When a student in conversation with a professor holds the older man’s eyes a little longer than is usual, it can be a sign of respect and affection; it can be a challenge to the professor’s authority; or it can be something else entirely. The experts look for patterns in the context, not for an isolated meaningful gesture.
(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)
81．What idea does the author aim to convey in paragraph 2?
82．Besides moral background, __________ are the other three factors affecting people’s body language.
83．From Albert’s formula, we learn that the body language __________.
84．What can you conclude from the examples given in paragraph 5?
1）参与社区环保；2）陪伴空巢老人（the elderly in empty nest）；3）组织读书活动。