III. Reading Comprehension

Section A

The past 20 years have produced great advances in technology and communications.  50 , people throughout the world have become ever more connected. The  51 link between the nations and people of the world is called globalization. It is a  52 that has changed ways of life around the world.

Perhaps the biggest change in this process is the effect of globalization on commerce. In an effort to build a  53 economy, most nations of the world have embraced (拥抱) free trade. Free trade removes certain limits imposed (强加) on global commerce to make it easier for nations to exchange goods with one another. A  54 aim of this process is to aid poor nations and thus reduce  55 . Globalization has indeed increased trade throughout the world, but experts disagree about its effect on the poor.

The debate about recent trends in global commerce is complex. Those  56 free trade in the global market point out that competition lowers prices. Its critics argue that, without controls, such a system often harms poor nations. To some extent, both are  57 . For example, in Jamaica, a country which imported milk from the United States and the  58 milk was cheaper than local milk, more poor people could drink milk and improve their nutrition. At the same time, the cheaper milk put  59 dairy farmers out of business. Perhaps this program caused as much harm as  60 .

Those who support free trade in the global market do so for a number of reasons. Studies show that when a poor nation begins trading on the global level, it gains certain  61 . Its economy grows rapidly. Multinational companies set up factories,  62 jobs for people. Supporters claim that these factors reduce poverty and lessen the gap between the richest and poorest nations. They believe that the globalizing trend benefits the poor.

Critics of unrestricted free trade question these conclusions. Although they  63 that the global market can offer growth and jobs to poor nations, they doubt that it reduces poverty. In fact, they cite (引述) studies which show that poverty has increased as a result of the global market.

  64 , the gap between rich and poor nations is growing.

Regardless of which side they are on, most experts believe that globalization has great potential to aid the poor. Both sides need to find a way to make it work.

50. A. In conclusion      B. In particular      C. As a result       D. On the contrary

51. A. growing              B. starting            C. moving              D. reducing

52. A. culture                    B. trend            C. belief              D. potential

53. A. regional              B. national           C. practical             D. global

54. A. steadier               B. further            C. tougher           D. stricter

55. A. profit               B. conflict           C. poverty           D. expense

56. A. attracting            B. altering           C. opposing            D. supporting

57. A. correct                    B. inevitable       C. necessary        D. effective

58. A. required              B. produced         C. imported            D. exported

59. A. economical          B. local            C. traditional          D. social

60. A. sacrifice              B. satisfaction         C. convenience        D. good

61. A. benefits               B. varieties          C. opportunities      D. budgets

62. A. influencing          B. arranging         C. providing           D. applying

63. A. ensure              B. assume            C. argue              D. agree

64. A. In addition          B. First of all         C. In that case        D. On average

Section B


Five years ago, David Smith wore an expensive suit to work every day. “I was a clothes addict,” he jokes. “I used to carry a fresh suit to work with me so I could change if my clothes got wrinkled.” Today David wears casual clothes --- khaki pants and sports shirt --- to the office. He hardly ever wears a necktie. “I’m working harder than ever,” David says, “and I need to feel comfortable.”

More and more companies are allowing their office workers to wear casual clothes to work in the United States. The change from formal to casual office wear has been gradual. In the early 1990s, many companies allowed their employees to wear casual clothes on Friday (but only on Friday). This became known as “dress-down Friday” or “casual Friday”. “What started out as an extra one-day-a-week benefit for employees has really become an everyday thing.” said business consultant Maisly Jones.

Why have so many companies started allowing their employees to wear casual clothes? One reason is that it’s easier for a company to attract new employees if it has a casual dress code. “A lot of young people don’t want to dress up for work,” says the owner of a software company, “so it’s hard to hire people if you have a conservative (保守的) dress code.” Another reason is that people seem happier and more productive when they are wearing comfortable clothes. In a study conducted by Levi Strauss and Company, 85 percent of employers say that they believe that casual dress improves employee morale (士气). Only 4 percent of employers say that casual dress has a negative impact on productivity. Supporters of casual office wear also argue that a casual dress code helps them save money. “Suits are expensive, if you have to wear one every day,” one person said. “For the same amount of money, you can buy a lot more casual clothes.”

65. David Smith refers to himself as having been “a clothes addict,” because ______.

A. he often wore khaki pants and a sports shirt

B. he couldn’t stand a clean appearance

C. he wanted his clothes to look neat all the time

D. he didn’t want to spend much money on clothes

66. David Smith wears casual clothes now, because ______.

A. they make him feel at ease when working      B. he cannot afford to buy expensive clothes

C. he looks attractive in casual clothes           D. he no longer works in that company

67. According to this passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. Company workers started to dress down at work about twenty years ago.

B. Dress-down has become an everyday phenomenon since the early 1990s.

C. “Dress-down Friday” was first given as a favor from employers.

D. Many workers want to wear casual clothes to attract people.

68. In this passage, the following advantages of casual office wear are mentioned in the passage except ______.

A. saving employees’ money                  B. making employees more attractive

C. improving employees’ motivation            D. making employees happier