“Expericence may possibly be the best teacher,but it is not a particulary good teacher.”You might think that Winston Churhill or perhaps Mark Twain spoke those wors,but they actually come from James March, a prosefessor at staufor university and a pioneer in the field of organization deeision making.For years March( possibly be wisest philosopher of managerment) has studied how hummns think and act,and he continues to do so in his new book The Ambiguities of Experience.

He begins by reminding us of just how firmly we hava been sticking to the idea of experiential learning :“Experience is respected;experience is sought;erperience is explained.”The problem is that learning from experience involves(涉及)serious complications(复杂化),ones that are part of the nature of experience itself and which March discusses in the body of this book.

In one interesting part of book,for example,he turns a double eye toward the use of stories as the most effective way of experiential learning. He says“The more accurately(精确的)reality is presented,the less understandable the story,and the more understandable the story,the less realistic it is.”

Besides being a broadly knowdledgeable researcher. March is also a poet, and his gift shines though in the depth of views he offers and the simple language he uses. Though the book is short, it is demanding;Don’t pick it up looking for quick, easy lessons. Rather, be ready to think deeply about learning from experience in work and life.

53.According to the text, James March is ____________.

A. a poet who uses experience in his writing

B. a teacher who teachers story writing in university

C. a researcher who studies the way humans think and act

D. a professor who helps organizations make important decisions

54.According to James March, experience ______________.

A. is overvalued          B. is easy to explain

C. should be actively sought

55.What can we learn from Paragraph 3?

A. Experience makes stories more accurate.

B. Stories made interesting fail to fully present the truth.

C. The use of stories is the best way of experiential learning.

D. Stories are easier to understand when reality is more accurately described.

56.What’s the purpose of this text?

A. To introduce a book.                B. To describe a researcher.

C. To explain experiential learning.       D. To discuss organizational decision making.


In specd difference:It's the difference between how important a firms leaders say sepced is to their competitive (竞争的) strategy(策略)and how fast the company actually moves.The differencd is important reganlless of industry and company size .Companies fearful or losing their competitive advantage spend much time and money looking for ways to

In our dy of 343 businesses,the companies to go,go,go to try to gain an edge ended with lower sales and operating incomes than those that baused at key moments to make sure they were on the right track,Whats more ,the firns that “slowed down to speed up “inproved their top and bottom lines , 40% higher sales and 52% higher opctating incance over a three-yesr period.

How did they disobey the laws of business phyaics ,taking more time than competitors yet penerning bertter ?They thought differently about what “slower “ and “faster” mean.Firms sometimes fail to understand the difference between operation speed (moving quickly )and strategic speed (reducing the time it takes to deliver value ).Simply increasing the speed of production,for example ,may be one way to try to reduce the speed difference .But that often leads to reduced value over time,in the form of lower-quality products and services.

In our study,hight performing companies with strategic speed always made changes when necessary.They became and discussion.They encouraged new ways of thinking.And they allowed time to look and learn.By contrast (相比而言). suffered at firms that moved falt all the among their empleyre ,and had little time thinking about changes.

Strategic speed serves as a kind of leadership . Teams that regularly take time to get things right , rather than plough ahead full bore , are more successful in meeting their business goals . That kind of strategy must come from the top.

57 . What does the underlined part “gain an edge ”in Paragraph 2 mean ?

A. Increase the speed.

B. Get an advantage.

C. Reach the limit.

D. Set a 

58. The  part “the laws of business in Paragraph 3 means ___________.

A. spending more time and performing worse.

B. spending more time and performing better

C. spending less time and performing worse

D. spending less time and performing better

59. What can we learn from the text?

A. how fast a firm moves depends on how big it is.

B. how competitive a firm is depends on what it produces.

C. Firms guided by strategic speed take time to make necessary changes.

D. Firms guided by operational speed take time to develop necessary team spirit.

60. Where could be the last title for the text?

A. ?  quality? Serve better.

B. Delive value? Plough ahead.

C. Reduce time? Move faster.

D. Need speed? Slow down.

第二节  根据对话内容,从对话后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。选项中有两项多余选项。(共5小题:每小题2分,满分10分)

—Good evening. Grandma’s Restaurant. May I help you?

—Good evening. ___61___

—Thank you. May I have your name,Miss?

—Mary Brown.


—I’d like to order the “Free Matching Dinner fou 2”.

—Yes, you may choose two soups, two drinks and four main course from the menu.


—are you ready.What Kind of soup do you want?

—chicken soup and tomato soup.


—I’d like a plate of noodles ,two chinken beef and a bowl of rice.


—May I coke and some green tea ,please.

—May I have your address ,please?

—Sure,  kingston Court,Belair Cardens.Shatin.

—Okay,let me see.

A.May I book a table in your restaurant  for tonight?

B.I would like to order some food for dinner.

C.Miss Brown,please tell me your order.

D.How about your main courses?

E.Would you like some drinks?

F.Okay .Let me see.

G.And your drinks?