基本框架 basic framework


办学效益 efficiency in school management

协调发展 doordinated and balanced program of development

教育投入 input in education

优化教师队伍 optimize the teaching staff

实行分区规划 practice regional planning

社会参与 communal participation

新增劳动力 incoming labor force

职前教育 pre-service education

岗位培训 undergo job-specific training

提高......的思想品德 enhance the moral awareness of ...

职业道德 professional ethics

重点学科 key disciplinary areas or priority fields of study

(大学)专科 Major Types of Education in China short 2- to 3- year higher education programs

扫盲班 literacy class

注册人数 enrollment

年龄段(层)age bracket

反复灌输 inculcate

希望工程 Project Hope

学龄儿童 school-ager

人才枯竭 exhaustion of human resources

辍/失学青少年 school dropout/leaver

基金会 foundation

服务性行业 service trade

在职培训 on-the-job/in-service training

国际劳工组织 International Labor Organization

基础科学 the fundamentals

学分制 the credit system

三学期制 the trimester system

双学士制 a double BA degree system

主副修制 a system of a major field of specialization plus a minor field

教学、科研、生产的"三结合" "3-in-1 combination" involving teaching,research, and production

三结合联合体 tripartite complex

定向招生 students are admitted to be trained for pre-determined employers

包分配 guarantee job assignments

燎原计划 the Prairie Fire Program

示范试点 demonstration pilot project

结合、使加入 incorporate

动员 mobilize

税收 tax revenue

多学科的 multi-disciplinary

重点大学 key university


被授权 be authorized to do

博士后科研流动站 center for post-doctoral studies

专业 speciality

爱国人士 patriotic personage

国家发明奖 National Invention Prize

国家自然科学奖 National Prize for Natural Sciences

国家科技进步奖 National Prize for Progress in Science and Technology

学术报告会,专题讨论会 symposium

记者招待会 press conference

国家教委主任 Chairman of the State Education Commission

国家统计局 the State Statistical Bureau

国家教育经费 national expenditure on education

财政拨款 financial allocation

半文盲 semiliterate; functional illiterate

占百分比 account for ...%

专任教师 full-time teacher

资料中心 data center

国际文化交流 intercultural communication

教育方针 guideline(s)/guiding principle(s) for education


Education must serve the needs of socialist modernization, be integrated with productive labor, and train builders and successors who are well developed morally, intellectuall and physically.


a socialist education system with distince Chinese characteristics that meets the needs of socialist modernization and is oriented to the 21st century


to keep to the socialist orientation

身体好,学习好,工作好。Keep fit, study hard and work well.

德才兼备 to combine ability with character; equal stress on integrity and ability

成为有理想,有道德,有文化,守纪律的劳动者 to become working people with lofty ideals, moral integrity, education and a sense of discipline


Gear educaiton to the needs of modernization, the world and the future

爱国主义教育 education in patrotisem

国际主义教育 education in internationalism

集体主义教育 education in collectivism

共产主义教育 education in communism

共产主义道德品质 communist ethics

政治思想教育 political and ideological education


"Five Love": love the motherland, the people, labor, and science and take good care of public property.

教书育人 to educate the person as well as impart book knowledge


to cultivate the ability to analyze and solve concrete problems independently


to help develop the ability of the students to think things out for themselves


to foster the students' ability to study on their own

发挥学生主动性、创造性 to give scope to the students' initiative and creativeness

自学成才 to become educated through independent study

启发式 elicitation method (of teaching); heuristic method

填鸭式教学法 cramming/forced-feeding method of teaching

普及教育 universal education

义务教育 compulsory education; free education

学前教育 preschool education

初等教育 elementary education

中等教育 secondary education

高等教育 higher/tertiary education

普遍教育 general education

成人教育 adult education

职业技术教育 vocational and technical education

国家教育委员会 State Education Commission

高等学校 institution of higher education

综合性大学 comprehensive university

文科大学 university of liberal arts

文科院校 colleges of art

理工科大学 college/university of science and engineering

师范大学 normal university; teachers' university

师范学院 teachers' college

工业大学 polytechnical university

工业学院 engineering institute

农业大学 agricultural university

农学院 agricultural college

医科大学 medical university

医学院 medical college/school

中医院 institute of traditional Chinese medicine

音乐学院 conservatory of music

美术学院 academy of fine arts

体育学院 physical culture institute

分校 branch school

重点学校 key school

业余学校 spare-time school

业余职工大学 spare-time college for staff and workers

电视广播大学 television and radio broadcasting university

函授学院 correspondence school

教师进修学校 teachers' college for vocational studies

成人夜校 night school for adults

业余艺术/体育学校 amateur arts/athletic school

半工半读学校 part-work and part-study school

中等专业学校 secondary specialized school; polytechnic school

中等技术学校 secondary technical school; technical secondary school

职业学校 vocational school

附中 attached middle school

在职进修班 in-service training course

进修班 class for advanced studies

短训班 short-term training course

专修科 special (training) course

自学考试 self-taught examination

教职员 teaching and administrative staff

教学人员 the faculty; teaching staff

中、小学校长headmaster/headmistress; principal

大专院校校长 president; chancellor

教务长 dean of studies

(系)主任 chairman; chairperson

副主任 vice-chairman

教授 professor

副教授 associate professor

客座教授 visiting professor; guest professor

讲师 lecturer

助教 assistant

专职教师 full-time teacher

兼职教师 part-time teacher

辅导员 assistant for political and ideological work

教研室/组 teaching and research section/group

教学组 teaching group

教员休息室 staff room; common room

母校 Alma Mater

校友 alumnus; alumna

学生会 students' union/association

高年级学生 upper/higher grade pupil/student; pupil/student in senior grades

低年级学生 lower grade pupil/student; pupil/student in junior grades

走读生 day student; non-resident student

住宿生 boarder

旁听生 auditor

研究生 graduate student; post-graduate (student)

应届毕业生 graduating student/pupil; this year's graduates

听课 to visit a class; to sit in on a class;p to attend a lecture

公开课 open class

课程 course; curriculum

必修课 required/compulsory course

选修课 elective/optional course

基础课 basic course

专业课 specialized course

课程表 school timetable

课外活动 extracurricular activities

课外辅导 instruction after class

课外阅读 outside reading

课堂讨论 class discussion

(大学的)研究小组;讨论会 seminar

教学大纲 teaching program; syllabus

教学内容 content of courses

学习年限 period of schooling

学历 record of formal schooling

学年 school/academic year

学期 (school)term; semester

学分 credit

分数 mark; grade

五分制 the 5-grade marking system

百分制 100-mark system

学习成绩 academic record; school record

成绩单 school report; report card; transcript

毕业论文 thesis; dissertation

毕业实习 graduation field work

毕业设计 graduation ceremony

毕业典礼 graduation ceremony; commencement

毕业证书 diploma; graduation certificate

毕业鉴定 graduation appraisal

授予某人学位 to confer a degree on sb.

升级 to be promoted to a higher grade

留级 to repeat the year's work; to stay down

补考 make-up examination

升学t o go to a school of a higher grade; to enter a higher school

升学率 proportion of students entering schools of a higher grade

奖学金 scholarship

(国家)助学金 (state)stipend/subsidy

领取助学金的学生 a grant-aided student

学费 tuition (fee)

伙食费 board expenses

伙食补助 food allowance