课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.once a year
每年一次

once+表示时间的名词可以表示“每……一次”:
The postman calls once a day.
邮递员每天来一次。

2.A lot of cars entered for this race last year…
去年有很多汽车参加了这项比赛 ……

enter for表示“报名参加”。(cf.第8课词汇学习

3.Built in 1885, it was the oldest car taking part.
该车造于1885年,是参赛车中最老的一辆。

built引导的过去分词短语起状语的作用,说明动作发生的背景或情况。主句可以补全为it was the oldest car taking part in the race。

4.Many of the cars broke down on the course…
很多汽车在途中就抛了锚……

break down为固定短语,其含义之一是“(机械等)出故障”、“出毛病”:
This morning I was late for work, because my car broke down twice.
今天上午我上班迟到了,因为我的车坏了两次。

5.The winning car reached a speed of forty miles an hour--much faster than any of its rivals.
获胜的那辆车达到了时速40英里——远远超过任何对手。

(1)winning为现在分词作定语:
Those of the winning team jumped happily.
获胜队的队员们高兴地跳着。

(2)表示速度为多少时可用a speed of+数量词这个结构:
You must have been driving at a speed of seventy miles an hour.
你刚才一定是以每小时70英里的速度在开车。

(3)破折号后面的部分补充说明这个速度。much是用得较多的与比较级连用的修饰语:
Houses are much more expensive these days.
如今的房价贵多了。

6.It sped downhill at the end of the race and its driver had a lot of trouble trying to stop it.
它在接近终点时,冲下了山坡,驾驶员费了好大劲才把车停下来。

(1)speed作不及物动词时可以表示“疾驶”、“急行”等含义:
The police car sped past us.
警车从我们身边疾驶而过。

The two men sped out of the room.
那两个人快步走出了房间。

(2)表示“在……的末尾/最后部分”时可以用at the end of这个短语:
I'll return the books to you at the end of the week/ month.
我周/月末时把书还给你。

He spoke a few words at the end of the meeting.
会议结束时他说了几句话。

(3)表示“做某事遇到麻烦/困难”时可以用have trouble doing sth.:
They had some trouble finding out the cause of the fire.
他们在查找起火原因时遇到了一些困难。

语法 Grammar in use

1.使用the same as和different from的比较结构

第32课的语法中,我们学习了用as…as和not so/as…as表示比较;在第8课的语法中,我们学习了形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的构成及用法。

表示比较的另外两种方法是用短语the same (…) as和different from。the same (…) as表示“与……相同/同样”:
Our TV is the same as yours.
我们的电视和你们的一样。

You've made the same mistake as Tom.
你和汤姆犯了同样的错误。

有时the same可以单独使用,不带as:
Those two dresses are the same.
那两件衣服一样。

different from表示“与……不同”,different前面可加very, much, a little等修饰语:
We're planning something different this year from what we did last year.
我们今年计划做些与去年不同的事。

German cars are quite different from Japanese cars.
德国(造的)汽车与日本(造)的很不一样。

2.much与many的其他表达方式

在第32课的语法中,我们学习了little和few的用法,知道在口语中多用not much, not many代替:
There isn't much sugar/aren't many sweets, but you can have a little/few.
糖/糖果不多了,不过你可以来一点/吃几块。

(1)much和many通常用于否定句和疑问句(正式文体除外)。在日常谈话中,我们通常避免在肯定句中使用much和many,而用别的数量词。口语中用得最多的表示“许多”的数量词是a lot of(常被认为不宜用在正式的场合),它既可以与复数可数名词连用也可以与不可数名词连用,后面的动词用单数还是复数取决于名词:

A lot of time is needed to do this work.
做这项工作需要很多时间。

A lot of books have been stolen.
许多书被盗了。

比a lot of正式一些的表达方式有:a great/good deal of+不可数名词,a great/good/large number of+复数名词,a great/good many of+复数名词。

A great/good deal of money is spent on food.
在食物上花了很多钱。

A great/good number of our students are Americans.
我们的学生中有许多是美国人。

Tom doesn't read much, but Ian reads a great deal/a lot.
汤姆读书不多,但伊恩读得很多。

(2)在what引导的感叹句中不用much/many:
What a nice car!
真是辆好车!