Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Too many vulnerable child-free adults are being ruthlessly(无情的)manipulated into parent-hood by their parents , who think that happiness among older people depends on having a grand-child to spoil. We need an organization to help beat down the persistent campaigns of grandchildless parents. It’s time to establish Planned Grandparenthood, which would have many global and local benefits.
Part of its mission would be to promote the risks and realities associated with being a grandparent. The staff would include depressed grandparents who would explain how grandkids break lamps, bite, scream and kick. Others would detail how an hour of baby-sitting often turns into a crying marathon. More grandparents would testify that they had to pay for their grandchild’s expensive college education.
Planned grandparenthood’s carefully written literature would detail all the joys of life grand-child-free a calm living room, extra money for luxuries during the golden years, etc. Potential grandparents would be reminded that, without grandchildren around, it’s possible to have a conversation with your kids, who----incidentally-----would have more time for their own parents .
Meanwhile, most children are vulnerable to the enormous influence exerted by grandchildless parents aiming to persuade their kids to produce children . They will take a call from a persistent parent, even if they’re loaded with works. In addition, some parents make handsome money offers payable upon the grandchild’s birth. Sometimes these gifts not only cover expenses associated with the infant’s birth, but extras, too, like a vacation. In any case, cash gifts can weaken the resolve of even the noblest person.
At Planned Grandparenthood, children targeted by their parents to reproduce could obtain non-biased information about the insanity of having their own kids. The catastrophic psychological and economic costs of childbearing would be emphasized. The symptoms of morning sickness would be listed and horrors of childbirth pictured. A monthly newsletter would contain stories about overwhelmed parents and offer guidance on how childless adults can respond to the different lobbying tactics that would-be grandparents employ.
When I think about all the problems of our overpopulated world and look at our boy grabbing at the lamp by the sofa, I wish I could have turned to Planned Grandparenthood when my parents were putting the grandchild squeeze on me.
If I could have, I might not be in this parenthood predicament( 窘境) . But here’s the crazy irony, I don’t want my child-free life back . Dylan’s too much fun.
21. What’s the purpose of the proposed organization Planned Grandparenthood?
A) To encourage childless couples to have children.
B) To provide facilities and services for grandchildless parents.
C) To offer counseling to people on how to raise grandchildren.
D) To discourage people from insisting on having grandchildren.
22. Planned Grandparenthood would include depressed grandparents on its staff in order to____.
A) show them the joys of life grandparents may have in raising grandchildren
B) draw attention to the troubles and difficulties grandchildren may cause
C) share their experience in raising grandchildren in a more scientific way
D) help raise funds to cover the high expense of education for grandchildren
23. According to the passage, some couples may eventually choose to have children because_____.
A) they find it hard to resist the carrot-and-stick approach of their parents
B) they have learn from other parents about the joys of having children
C) they feel more and more lonely ad they grow older
D) they have found it irrational to remain childless
24.By saying “… my parents were putting the grandchild squeeze on me” (Line 2-3,Para. 6), the author means that _________.
A) her parents kept pressuring her to have a child
B) her parents liked to have a grandchild in their arms
C) her parents asked her to save for the expenses of raising a child
D) her parents kept blaming her for her child’s bad behavior
25.What does the author really of the idea of having children?
A) It does more harm than good.
B) It contributes to overpopulation.
C) It is troublesome but rewarding.
D) It is a psychological catastrophe
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Ask most people how they define the American Dream and chances are they’ll say, “Success.” The dream of individual opportunity has been home in American since Europeans discovered a “new world” in the Western Hemisphere. Early immigrants like Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur praised highly the freedom and opportunity to be found in this new land. His glowing descriptions of a classless society where anyone could attain success through honesty and hard work fired the imaginations of many European readers: in Letters from an American Farmer (1782) he wrote. “We are all excited at the spirit of an industry which is unfettered (无拘无束的) and unrestrained, because each person works for himself … We have no princes, for whom we toil (干苦力活)，starve, and bleed: we are the most perfect society now existing in the world.” The promise of a land where “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” drew poor immigrants from Europe and fueled national expansion into the western territories.
Our national mythology (神化) is full of illustration the American success story. There’s Benjamin Franklin, the very model of the self-educated, self-made man, who rose from modest origins to become a well-known scientist, philosopher, and statesman. In the nineteenth century, Horatio Alger, a writer of fiction for young boys, became American’s best-selling author with rags-to-riches tales. The notion of success haunts us: we spend million every year reading about the rich and famous, learning how to “make a fortune in real estate with no money down,” and “dressing for success.” The myth of success has even invaded our personal relationships: today it’s as important to be “successful” in marriage or parenthoods as it is to come out on top in business.
But dreams easily turn into nightmares. Every American who hopes to “make it” also knows the fear of failure, because the myth of success inevitably implies comparison between the haves and the have-nots, the stars and the anonymous crowd. Under pressure of the myth, we become indulged in status symbols: we try to live in the “right” neighborhoods, wear the “right” clothes, eat the “right” foods. These symbols of distinction assure us and others that we believe strongly in the fundamental equality of all, yet strive as hard as we can to separate ourselves from our fellow citizens.
26. What is the essence of the American Dream according to Crevecoeur?
A) People are free to develop their power of imagination.
B) People who are honest and work hard can succeed.
C) People are free from exploitation and oppression.
D) People can fully enjoy individual freedom.
27.By saying “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” (Line 10, Para. 1), the author means __________ .
A) the more diligent one is, the bigger his returns
B) laborious work ensures the growth of an industry
C) a man’s business should be developed step by step
D) a company’s success depends on its employees’ hard work
28. The characters described in Horatio Alger’s novels are people who _______.
A) succeed in real estate investment
B) earned enormous fortunes by chances
C) became wealthy after starting life very poor
D) became famous despite their modest origins
29. It can be inferred from the last sentence of the second paragraph that _________.
A) business success often contributes to a successful marriage
B) Americans wish to succeed in every aspect of life
C) good personal relationships lead to business success
D) successful business people provide good care for their children
30. What is the paradox of American culture according to the author?
A) The American road to success is full of nightmares.
B) Status symbols are not a real indicator of a person’s wealth.
C) The American Dream is nothing but an empty dream.
D) What Americans strive after often contradicts their beliefs.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Public distrust of scientists stems in part from the blurring of boundaries between science and technology, between discovery and manufacture. Most government, perhaps all governments, justify public expenditure on scientific research in terms of the economic benefits the scientific enterprise ha brought in the past and will bring in the future. Politicians remind their voters of the splendid machines ‘our scientists’ have invented, the new drugs to relieve old ailments (病痛), and the new surgical equipment and techniques by which previously intractable (难治疗的) conditions may now be treated and lives saved. At the same time, the politicians demand of scientists that they tailor their research to ‘economics needs’, that they award a higher priority to research proposals that are ‘near the market’ and can be translated into the greatest return on investment in the shortest time. Dependent, as they are, on politicians for much of their funding, scientists have little choice but to comply. Like the rest of us, they are members of a society that rates the creation of wealth as the greatest possible good. Many have reservations, but keep them to themselves in what they perceive as a climate hostile to the pursuit of understanding for its own sake and the idea of an inquiring, creative spirit.
In such circumstances no one should be too hard on people who are suspicious of conflicts of interest. When we learn that the distinguished professor assuring us of the safety of a particular product holds a consultancy with the company making it, we cannot be blamed for wondering whether his fee might conceivably cloud his professional judgment. Even if the professor holds no consultancy with any firm, some people many still distrust him because of his association with those who do, or at least wonder about the source of some his research funding.
This attitude can have damaging effects. It questions the integrity of individuals working in a profession that prizes intellectual honesty as the supreme virtue, and plays into the hands of those who would like to discredit scientists by representing then a venal (可以收买的). This makes it easier to dismiss all scientific pronouncements, but especially those made by the scientists who present themselves as ‘experts’. The scientist most likely to understand the safety of a nuclear reactor, for example, is a nuclear engineer declares that a reactor is unsafe, we believe him, because clearly it is not to his advantage to lie about it. If he tells us it is safe, on the other hand, we distrust him, because he may well be protecting the employer who pays his salary.
31. What is the chief concern of most governments when it comes to scientific research?
A) Support from the votes.
B) The reduction of public expenditure.
C) Quick economics returns.
D) The budget for a research project.
32. Scientist have to adapt their research to ‘economic needs’ in order to _________ .
A) impress the public with their achievements
B) pursue knowledge for knowledge’s sake
C) obtain funding from the government
D) translate knowledge into wealth
33. Why won’t scientists complain about the government’s policy concerning scientific research?
A) They think they work in an environment hostile to the free pursuit of knowledge.
B) They are accustomed to keeping their opinions to themselves.
C) They know it takes patience to win support from the public.
D) They think compliance with government policy is in the interests of the public.
34. According to the author, people are suspicious of the professional judgment of scientists because ___________ .
A) their pronouncements often turn out to be wrong
B) sometimes they hide the source of their research funding
C) some of them do not give priority to intellectual honesty
D) they could be influenced by their association with the project concerned
35. Why does the author say that public distrust of scientists can have damaging effects?
A) It makes things difficult for scientists seeking research funds.
B) People would not believe scientists even when they tell the truth.
C) It may dampen the enthusiasm of scientists for independent research.
D) Scientists themselves may doubt the value of their research findings.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
In many ways, today’s business environment has changed qualitatively since the late 1980s. The end of the Cold War radically altered the very nature of the world’s politics and economics. In just a few short years, globalization has started a variety of trends with profound consequences: the opening of markets, true global competition, widespread deregulation (解除政府对……的控制) of industry, and an abundance of accessible capital. We have experienced both the benefits and risks of a truly global economy, with both Wall Street and Main Street (平民百姓) feeling the pains of economic disorder half a world away.
At the same time, we have fully entered the Information Age, Starting breakthroughs in information technology have irreversibly altered the ability to conduct business unconstrained by the traditional limitations of time or space. Today, it’s almost impossible to imagine a world without intranets, e-mail, and portable computers. With stunning speed, the Internet is profoundly changing the way we work, shop, do business, and communicate.
As a consequence, we have truly entered the Post-Industrial economy. We are rapidly shifting from an economy based on manufacturing and commodities to one that places the greatest value on information, services, support, and distribution. That shift, in turn, place an unprecedented premium on “knowledge workers,” a new class of wealthy, educated, and mobile people who view themselves as free agents in a seller’s market.
Beyond the realm of information technology, the accelerated pace of technological change in virtually every industry has created entirely new business, wiped out others, and produced a Pervasive( 广泛的) demand for continuous innovation. New product, process ,and distribution technologies provide powerful levers for creating competitive value. More companies are learning the importance of destructive technologies-----innovations that hold the potential to make a product line, or even an entire business segment, virtually outdated.
Another major trend has been the fragmentation of consumer and business markets. There’s a growing appreciation that superficially similar groups of customers may have very different preferences in terms of what they want to buy and how they want to buy it. Now, new technology makes it easier, faster ,and cheaper to identify and serve targeted micro-markets in ways that were physically impossible or prohibitively expensive in the past. Moreover, the trend feeds on itself, a business’s ability to serve sub-markets fuels customers’ appetites for more and more specialized offerings.
36. According to the first paragraph, the chances in the business environment in the past decades can be attributed to __________.
A) technological advances
B) worldwide economic disorder
C) the fierce competition in industry
D) the globalization of economy
37. what idea does the author want to convey in the second paragraph ?
A) The rapid development of information technology has taken businessmen by surprise
B) Information technology has removed the restrictions of time and space in business transactions
C) The Internet, intranets, e-mail, and portable computers have penetrated every corner of the world.
D) The way we do business today has brought about startling breakthroughs in information technology.
38. If a business wants to thrive in the Post-Industrial economy,__________
A) it has to invest more capital in the training of free agents to operate in a seller’s market
B) it should try its best to satisfy the increasing demands of mobile knowledgeable people
C) it should not overlook the importance of information, services, support, and distribution
D) it has to provide each of its employees with the latest information about the changing market
39. In the author’s view, destructive technologies are innovations which _________
A) can eliminate an entire business segment
B) demand a radical change in providing services
C) may destroy the potential of a company to make any profit
D) call for continuous improvement in ways of doing business
40. With the fragmentation of consumer and business markets ______________
A) an increasing number of companies have disintegrated
B) manufacturers must focus on one special product to remain competitive in the market
C) it is physically impossible and prohibitively expensive to do business in the old way
D) businesses have to meet individual customers’ specific needs in order to succeed .