Employers assume that those they hire know how to perform certain tasks. For example your boss will expect you to know how to write a professional email and answer the phone properly. Those tasks are pretty simple, but others are a bit more complicated—for example apologizing for a mistake. That's not something everyone knows how to do. Here are 8 tasks, some simple and some not, that everyone must master:

1. Sending a Professional Email: If you are under the age of 30 it's very likely you have been using email since you've known how to write.
1. 写商务邮件:只要你还很年轻,发送电子邮件对于你来说只是小菜一碟。

What you may not know is that there's a big difference between sending email to your friends and using this medium for work-related correspondence. For example, you may write in all lowercase letters, use slang and abbreviations, and perhaps even let misspellings and bad grammar go by, when sending email to your friends. Those are some of the "do nots" to which you should be attentive when corresponding with coworkers, your boss or clients.

2. Writing a Memo or Business Letter: It's hard to imagine having to send a paper copy of a memo or letter instead of an email, but it could happen. In case it ever does, you should know how to do it properly.
2. 写备忘和商务信函:很难想象,在当今社会还存在寄信的情况,不过这确实存在。为了应对这种情况,你需要了解商务信函的正确格式。

3. Answering the Telephone and Making Phone Calls: You've been making and receiving phone calls your entire life.
3. 拨打和接听电话:在你的人生中,已经拨打和接听过无数电话了。

Of course you know how to do this very simple task: you pick up the phone and say hello (or if making a call, you ask for the person to whom you want to speak). That's fine for personal phone calls but not for business calls. When you answer a call you should always identify yourself by name and state the name of your department or company. Give your name to the person who answers the phone when you are the caller and then tell him or her who you are trying to reach.

4. Making Introductions: When you meet someone new it is polite to introduce yourself to him or her.
4. 自我介绍:与别人初次见面,自我介绍是有礼貌的行为。

It is also polite to introduce people to one another. In a work-related situation it is always best to use first and last names. For example, say "Hello. I'm Mary Smith" when you meet someone for the first time. You can also do this when you run into someone you've met before but whose name you don't remember. In that case, you can add "I know we've met before but I'm afraid I've forgotten your name." Chances are they don't remember yours either! When introducing others say, for example, "John Jones, I'd like you to meet Peter Smith."
在职场,最好使用全名。例如,在第一次与别人见面的时候,你可以说"Hello, I'm Mary Smith." 你也可以在忘记了别人的名字的时候这样做。当然,也有可能是他们忘了你的名字。在这种情况下,你可以补充道,"我们之前见过面,但是我可能忘了您的名字。"。当介绍别人的时候,你可以这样说, "John Jones, I'd like you to meet Peter Smith."

5. Taking Minutes at a Meeting: Many jobs involve attending meetings, at least occasionally.
5. 会议记录:很多职业场合或多或少都要开会,并且通常都需要会议记录。

Often it is required that written records, called minutes, be kept of these meetings. At some point, the person running the meeting may turn to you to take these minutes. This will require keeping track of attendees and carefully taking notes of all discussions. You will also have to type up the minutes after the meeting.

6. Writing a 'To Do' List: Most jobs involve juggling multiple tasks.
6. 编写待办事项:很多职业都要求员工完成多种任务。

The best way to keep track of all of them is to keep a to do list. Write down all the tasks for which you are responsible, prioritized by the order in which you must complete them. Include due dates. Whether you use a smart phone app, computer software or a piece of paper, make sure you can either check off or cross out items as you complete them.

7. Apologizing for a Mistake: In order to apologize for a mistake, you will have to admit you made it.
7. 犯错后道歉:在道歉前,你必须承认自己犯了错。

That's a hard thing to do but it's necessary. It is imperative that you act quickly—as soon as you realize your error, talk to your boss or whomever will it will effect. Try to have a plan in mind to correct the mistake.

8. Calling in Sick: No one likes getting sick but, even more than that, most people hate calling in sick.
8. 请病假:没有人希望生病,不过更有甚者,人们都不喜欢请病假。

A precarious job market has led us to believe our presence at the office (or wherever your workplace happens to be) is of the utmost importance. While it is true that you shouldn't take sick days unnecessarily, you should try to avoid infecting your coworkers—stay home if you have a something they could catch! A phone call is usually the best way to inform your boss of your absence but make sure to follow your employer's notification procedures.