Learning by doing is familiar to every manager sent on a training course. Invariably this involves role-play based on studies of long-ago triumphs and disasters from a relevant industry ororganization. (8)____ The problem is, any experience of decision-making gained from role-play has one obvious shortcoming: it is not real life.

To tackle this dilemma, some of the best-known companies have set up the International Management Development Consortium, which provides a range of executive development programmes for staff members. (9)____ What this means is that they involve ‘action learning’ through real-life situations, and participants work as problem-solving consultants on projects within companies engaged in day-to-day business.

(10)____ Within this they also take training and refresher courses in traditional business skills such as finance, marketing, staff management and strategic planning. These disciplines are taught by a mix of academics, business people and senior managers from Consortium companies who also monitor the consultancy work.

More than 100 of these consultancy projects have been undertaken so far, and many more are to come. (11)____ Generally, those who choose to attend the course come from various countries, reflecting the multi-national nature of companies within the Consortium. (12)____ As a result of this cross-cultural exchange, the people on the course learn a great deal from each other- and often keep in contact on a professional level long after the end of their course.

The Consortium says language difficulties are not a problem when consultancies are undertaken for foreign companies on site. A translator is on hand to deal with difficulties which arise from technical terms or jargon.

(13)____ This is because they are not charged consultancy fees, although a nominal sum is payable for administration. The funding for the scheme is provided by each Consortium member who contributes to the cost of running the training courses, and the amount involved is considerably less than fees charged by leading business schools. (14)____ ‘it is,’ says the Chairman, ‘a real learning experience with techniques that can easily be used back at work..’

A They are being offered by companies who are aware of the benefits of the range of knowledge offered by the people on the course.

B As well as the savings, there are also the dividends it pays in the form of improved staff performance.

C The difference between these programmes and the average executive course, however, is that these courses are based on the concept of ‘live’consultancy.

D In this way, participants can also benchmark themselves against the best members from a range of Consortium companies.

E This means that within every training group there will be awide variety of experience, which is discussed and explored by the group.

F Typically, groups of up to six course members undertake projects as part of this development programme.

G Another major advantage is that these companies usually get their problems solved very cheaply.

H Managers are typically cast as key figures in these dramas, the comparisons are made later between how they dealt with the fictional situation and the actual event.

Real training,关于培训的。传统的培训都是纸上谈兵,现在有了real training,可以实战。高级第二部分相对中级,文章难度大一些,答案信号也不那么明显了。

第九题,这段说建立了一个管理发展协会,提供一系列培训计划。第九空后面的信息很重要:What this means is that they involve ‘action learning’through real-life situations。这意味着他们包括“action learning”,实际行动的学习。从这个句子中的what可以看出前面空格讲的是这个协会所提供的这一系列培训计划的特点,提供实际的演练。C选项最符合这一特点:这些课程是建立在实践咨询(live consultancy)的基础上的。

第十题,第三段开头的一个句子,第十空的后面说Within this they also take training and refresher courses in traditional business skills,这里的within this很重要,从中可以看出第十空还是对这个training的内容的介绍。F符合这个条件:每个成员都要负责一定的项目,作为发展计划的一部分。Undertake projects,是培训的一部分,后面接着说培训的另外内容:also take training and refresher courses。前后文可以衔接上。


第十二题,插在一段文字的中间,不上不下的。前面说的是选择了这些课程的人来自不同的国家(come from various countries),体现了跨国公司的性质。12空空格的后面说通过这种跨文化的交流(cross-culture exchange),参加这个课程的人可以互相学习。从后面的as a result of可以看出,前面12空讲的是参加这个课程的人相互交流、沟通的情况(cross-culture exchange)。所以选E:每个培训小组里都有被讨论和被探索的种类繁多的经验(a wide variety of experience)。

第十三题,最后一段,是具体讲的这个training的所有优点,包括很方便的解决语言障碍、便宜、有红利。第一句话说language difficulties不是个问题。后面接着说的是原因:有个翻译在手边。(A translator is on hand),13空的后面说他们不收取咨询费用,有个this is because是答案的信号,13空的内容肯定和不收费相关。G选项最符合这个条件:这个公司能够让这些问题很便宜的得到解决。Another major advantage是接着前面的翻译在手边所说的关于这个training的另外一个优势,cheaply则和后面的不收费相对应。

第十四题,这一空前面是在讲述这种培训的第二个优势(advantage),就是便宜。然后接着阐述了下便宜的原因。这一段的最后一句,也就是这一空的后面是全文的一个总结性的句子:这是一个真正的学习经历,学到的东西可以很容易的用回到实际工作中。那么综合整段的内容,14空内容应该是紧跟着上文接着说这个training有什么优点。B符合这个条件。首先B的as well as the saving,是指的上面说的便宜,便宜才能有saving。然后提到这种training的另一个优势,就是有红利(dividends)。