READING PART 1
The Negotiating Table
You can negotiate virtually anything. Projects, resources, expectations and deadlines are all outcomes of negotiation. Some people negotiate deals for a living. Dr Herb Cohen is one of these professional talkers, called in by companies to negotiate on their??behalf . He approaches the art of negotiation as a game because, as he is usually negotiating for somebody else, he says this helps him drain the emotional content from his conversation. He is working in a competitive field and needs to avoid being too adversarial. Whether he succeeds or not, it is important to him to make a good impression so that people will recommend him.
The starting point for any deal, he believes, is to identify exactly what you want from each other. More often than not, one party will be trying to persuade the other round to their point of view. Negotiation requires two people at the end saying ‘yes”. This can be a problem because one of them usually begins by saying “no”. However, although this can make talks more difficult, this is often just a starting point in the negotiation game. Top management may well reject the idea initially because it is the safer option but they would not be there if they were not interested.
It is a misconception that skilled negotiators are smooth operators in smart suits. Dr Cohen says that one of his strategies is to dress down so that the other side can relate to you. Pitch your look to suit your customer. You do not need to make them feel better than you but, For example, dressing in a style that is not overtly expensive or successful will make you more approachable. People will generally feel more comfortable with somebody who appears to be like them rather than superior to them. They may not like you but they will feel they can trust you.
Dr Cohen suggests that the best way to sell your proposal is by getting into the world of the other side. Ask questions rather than give answers and take an interest in what the other person is saying, even if you think what they are saying is silly. You do not need to become their best friends but being too clever will alienate them. A lot of deals are made on impressions. Do not rush what you are saying---put a few hesitations in , do not try to blind them with your verbal dexterity. Also, you should repeat back to them what they have said to show you take them seriously.
Inevitably some deals will not succeed. Generally the longer the negotiations go on, the better chance they have because people do not want to think their investment and energies have gone to waste. However , joint venture can mean joint risk and sometimes , if this becomes too great , neither party may be prepared to see the deal through . More common is a corporate culture clash between companies, which can put paid to any deal. Even having agreed a deal, things may not be tied up quickly because when the lawyers get involved, everything gets slowed down as they argue about small details.
De Cohen thinks that children are the masters of negotiation. Their goals are totally selfish. They understand the decision-making process within families perfectly. If Mum refuses their request , they will troop along to Dad and pressure him. If al else fails, they will try the grandparents, using some emotional blackmail. They can also be very single-minded and have an inexhaustible supply of energy for the cause they are pursuing. So there are lesson to be learned from watching and listening to children.
15 Dr Cohen treats negotiation as a game in order to
A put people at ease
B remain detached
C be competitive
D impress rivals
16 Many people say “no” to a suggestion in the beginning to
A convince the other party of their point of view
B show they are not really interested
C indicate they wish to take the easy option
D protect their company’s situation
17 Dr Cohen says that when you are trying to negotiate you should
A adapt your style to the people you are talking to
B make the other side feel superior to you
C dress in a way to make you feel comfortable.
D try to make the other side like you
18 According to Dr Cohen, understanding the other person will help you to
A gain their friendship
B speed up the negotiations
C plan your next move.
Dconvince them of your point of view
19 Deals sometimes fail because
A negotiations have gone on too long
B the companies operate in different ways
C one party risks more than the other.
D the lawyers work too slowly
20 Dr Cohen mentions children’s negotiation techniques to show that you should
A be prepared to try every route
B try not to make people feel guilty
C be careful not to exhaust yourself
D control the decision-making process.
关于negotiating techniques的文章。 传统的阅读题型，相对比较容易。
15题，答案很明显：he says this helps him drain the emotional content from his conversation。帮助他抽离他的谈话中的感情成分。要想选对，只需要知道选项B中detached的含义：not reacting to or becoming involved in something in an emotional way
16题，这题貌似只能采取排除法。因为几个选项和原文的对应都不是太明显。问为什么很多人在一开始要对一个建议说“不”。答案是第二段的最后一句：Top management may well reject the idea initially because it is the safer option but they would not be there if they were not interested.。最高管理层在一开始可能会拒绝这个建议，因为这样是一个更安全的选择。但是如果他们真的不感兴趣的话，他们就不会在那里（谈判）了。A在这段文字中没有提到，B不对，他们肯定是感兴趣的，C也不对没有提到，原文说的是safer option。选D，之所以会拒绝，因为从维护公司利益的角度，这样是一个safer option。
17题，答案也很明显：Dr Cohen says that one of his strategies is to dress down so that the other side can relate to you.这里的两个词组可以解释下：
dress down: to wear clothes that are more informal than the ones you would usually wear relate to :to feel that you understand someone's problem, situation etc
所以这个句子意思是穿的不那么正式，这样可以让另一方接近你。也就是A说的是你的风格适应你的谈判对象。C不对，不是make you feel comfortable，而是make others feel comfortable。D也不对，可能会误选，不是让别人喜欢你，like太夸张了，只是容易接近。
18题，答案在第四段的第一句话：Dr Cohen suggests that the best way to sell your proposal is by getting into the world of the other side.。走进另一方的世界，就是原文说的understanding the other person，目的是为了sell your proposal，也就是让对方接受你的建议，选D。
19题，谈判失败的原因，答案是第五段的这么一句：More common is a corporate culture clash between companies, which can put paid to any deal。公司文化冲突导致的。文化冲突，就是两个公司在运作、理念等等上的不一致，选C：两个公司以不同的方式运作。
20题，为什么要借鉴小孩子的办法，原文最后一段提到小孩子的办法就是，爸爸不行找妈妈，妈妈不行就在感情上敲诈爷爷奶奶。此路不通就换另一条，就是A说的尝试每一条路线。B没有提到，C不对，原文说小孩子有inexhaustible supply of energy。D也没有提到。