Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

  Chemistry did not emerge as a science until after the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century and then only rather slowly and laboriously. But chemical knowledge is as old as history, being almost entirely concerned with the practical arts of living. Cooking is essentially a chemical process; so is the melting of metals and the administration of drugs and potions. This basic chemical knowledge, which was applied in most cases as a rule of thumb, was nevertheless dependent on previous experiment. It also served to stimulate a fundamental curiosity about the processes themselves. New information was always being gained as artisans improved techniques to gain better results.

  The development of a scientific approach to chemistry was, however, hampered by several factors. The most serious problem was the vast range of material available and the consequent difficulty of organizing it into some system. In addition, there were social and intellectual difficulties, chemistry is nothing if not practical; those who practice it must use their hands, they must have a certain practical flair. Yet in many ancient civilizations, practical tasks were primarily the province of a slave population. The thinker or philosopher stood apart from this mundane world, where the practical arts appeared to lack any intellectual content or interest.

  The final problem for early chemical science was the element of secrecy. Experts in specific trades had developed their own techniques and guarded their knowledge to prevent others from stealing their livelihood. Another factor that contributed to secrecy was the esoteric nature of the knowledge of alchemists, who were trying to transform base metals into gold or were concerned with the hunt for the elixir that would bestow the blessing of eternal life. In one sense, the second of these was the more serious impediment because the records of the chemical processes that early alchemists had discovered were often written down in symbolic language intelligible to very few or in symbols that were purposely obscure.

  21. What is the passage mainly about?

  A) The scientific revolution in the seventeenth century.

  B) Reasons that chemistry developed slowly as a science.

  C) The practical aspects of chemistry.

  D) Difficulties of organizing knowledge systematically.

  22. According to the passage, how did knowledge about chemical processes increase before the seventeenth century?

  A) Philosophers devised theories about chemical properties.

  B) A special symbolic language was developed.

  C) Experience led workers to revise their techniques.

  D) Experts shared their discoveries with the public.

  23. The bold word "hampered" in Line 1 Para 2 is closest in meaning to____.

  A) recognized B) determined

  C) solved D) hindered

  24. The bold word "it" refers to which of the following?

  A) Problem. B) Material.

  C) Difficulty. D) System.

       25. Which of the following statements best explains why "the second of these was the more serious impediment"(Underlined)?

  A) Chemical knowledge was limited to a small number of people.

  B) The symbolic language used was very imprecise.

  C) Very few new discoveries were made by alchemists.

  D) The records of the chemical processes were not based on experiments.



22.【答案】C。【译文】根据文章的内容,在十七世纪之前,化学过程的知识是如何增加的?【试题分析】细节推理型,根据文章中的相关信息,并进行分析和总结。【详细解答】选项A的意思是"哲学家编写了有关化学知识的理论。",文章第二段的最后一句话The thinker or philosopher stood apart from this mundane world告诉我们哲学家远离有关的化学知识,而不是编写了理论;选项B的意思是"形成了一套特殊的符号语言",文章最后一段的最后一句话告诉我们使用符号的原因是为了保守秘密,而不是为了发展化学知识;选项C的意思是"经验引导着工人们改进他们的技术。",第一段所讲的内容正是关于这一点,而且这也是发展化学知识的方法,故是正确答案;选项D的意思是"专家们与公众分享这些化学知识",文章第三段明显提到为了保守秘密他们这些炼丹术士采取多种手段保守秘密,所以该选项不正确。

23.【答案】D。【译文】文中黑体词hamper在意思上与哪个选项更接近?【试题分析】词义推测型,通过对上下文的理解,推测出生词的意思。【详细解答】做这类题目时,首先找到该单词所在的位置,并把上下文的句子仔细研读。它们所提供的线索和提示会告诉我们这个陌生单词的意思。在这句话中的hamper的意思是"阻碍,挡住"。而在四个选项中,只有选项D hinder是这个意思。故本题的正确答案是D。

24.【答案】B。【译文】文中黑体词it指代的是什么?【试题分析】词义推测型,通过对上下文的理解,推测出代词所代指的含义。【详细解答】做这类题目时,首先找到该代词所在的位置,并把上下文的句子仔细研读。它们所提供的线索和提示会告诉我们这个陌生单词的意思。特别是该代词前面的名词短语或从句。一般来说,这类题目的答案都能在同一句话的主语或宾语,或者在前一句话的主语和宾语中找到。仔细阅读完前面的句子后,我们可以得知这里it指的是 material。

25.【答案】A。【译文】下面哪个句子能最好地解释加下划线的短语"第二个是更严重的阻碍的原因"?【试题分析】语句理解型,考查学生对文章中难点句子的理解和解释。【详细解答】选项A的意思是"化学知识只是局限在少数人的手中。",文章第三段所讲的内容正是关于这一点,故选项A是正确答案; 选项B的意思是"所使用的符号语言不准确",文章第三段中提到了intelligible to very few or in symbols that were purposely obscure告诉我们这些符号并不是不准确;选项C的意思是"非常少的发现是由炼丹术士发现的",文章第三段中所提到的信息告诉我们大部分发现都是由这些术士发现的,与文章内容不符;选项D的意思是"关于化学过程的记录不是建立在实验的基础上",原文中明确提到所有化学知识的记录都是建立在实验的基础上。