本文选自吴应时主编的《大学英语六级阅读真题精读——晨读伴侣》。本书对历年国家大学英语六级考试(CET-6)的仔细阅读部分进行了详尽而精准的分析、翻译和注释,对四六级考生有着事半功倍的效果,对提升整体英语能力也很有帮助。

第一章 历年六级真题阅读材料精读(2013年6月Passage1)

全国大学英语等级考试从未停止过改革的步伐,四级、六级真题从2013年6月开始就采用多套试卷以减少甚至是杜绝作弊的可能性。本书的文章也选取到这个时间为止。

学英语不是吃快餐,新概念英语已问世很多年,可从未过时。本书的30篇阅读真题也是如此,这30篇文章值得读者反复学习,熟读成诵。之后的真题就当作考试模拟题吧,好好学习这30篇文章,彻底吃透里面的每一个生词、每一个语言点。

在本书的学习上,可以慢一点,比如每周学习一篇。待学完之后,可以每天复习一篇,这样一个月的时间就可以完成全书的复习。日复一日,月复一月,坚持下来,一年之后英文水平势必取得巨大的进步。

我们学习英语所犯的最大错误,并非缺乏优良的教材,而是高估了自己的行动。

祝各位学习愉快,学有所得。

2013年6月

Passage One

学习导语:

触觉有什么作用?让我们更好地感知周围的世界。双十一成为了网民的购物狂欢节,文中对网上购物其实还是持否定态度的。可商业潮流的确不以学者的研究所改变,现实是残酷的,电商的发展超乎了大家的想象。正好可以通过这篇文章看看作者是如何分析电商的劣势的。

[In 2011], many shoppers chose to avoid (the frantic1) crowds and do their holiday shopping [from the comfort of their computer]. Sales (at online retailers2) gained [by more than 15%], [making it the biggest season3 ever]. But people are [also] returning those purchases [at record rates4 ], [up 8%] [from last year].
2011年许多消费者选择舒适地坐在电脑面前进行假日购物,以避免喧嚣的人群。网络零售商的销售额上涨了15%以上,成为有史以来最高的时期。但是人们的退货率也创了纪录,较去年增长8%。

注:1. frantic adj. 疯狂的,狂乱的。但在句子中考虑到修饰人群,可译为喧嚣的。例:

Keeping such a frantic pace only leaves you exhausted and not of much use to the people depending on you.
保持一种疯狂的步伐前进只会让你精疲力竭,而且对那些指望着你的人也没有好处。

Then they saw the frantic swimming, the cries for help that echoed across the bay.
接着他们就看到(落水的人)疯狂的挣扎,呼救声响彻海湾。

[选自:BBC: Norway attacks: The agony of the rescue]

2. retailer n. 零售商,销售商;传播的人。例:

Furniture and carpet retailers are among those reporting the sharpest annual decline in sales.
家具和地毯零售商们是在那些报告最大年销售下滑的商家之中。

【同】bania, tradesman  n.[贸易]零售商;传播的人

3. season n. 季节;时期;赛季。例:

The plum season is about to begin.
李子的当季期就要开始了。

vt.使适应;给…调味;vi. 变得成熟;变干燥。例:

Season the meat with salt and pepper.
用盐和胡椒粉给肉调味。

词组:regular season常规赛;季赛dry season旱季;枯水季节

4. at record rates,以史无前例的速度,以创纪录的速度。例:

Care homes and beds are being lost at record rates.
关爱之家以及爱心床位都以史无前例的速度流失。

[选自:BBC: NEWS | Health | Bill for elderly care could soar]

What went [wrong]? Is the lingering1 shadow (of the global financial crisis) making it  2>? Or that people shop [more] [impulsively3] – ^and therefore make bad decisions^ – [when online]? Both arguments are plausible 4. [However], there is a third factor: {a question of touch}. We can love the look but, ^in an online environment^, we cannot feel the quality (of a texture 5), the shape (of the fit), the fall (of a fold) or, [for that matter], the weight (of an earring). And physically interacting 6 [with an object] makes you .
出了什么问题?是金融危机挥之不去的阴影使其难以接受奢侈放纵?或者是人们在网上购物会更加冲动,因此才做出错误的决定?这两种观点貌似都是合理的。但是,还有第三个因素:接触问题。我们网购时可以喜欢商品的样子,但衣服的材质、形状、褶皱,或者是一个耳环的轻重等问题你都无法感受到。实物与身体的互动会让你更有购买意愿。

注:1. lingering adj. 拖延的  v. 持续,缓慢消失;徘徊;沉思(linger的ing形式)。例:

The beautiful music is still lingering in my ears.
美妙的音乐依然在我耳际萦绕。

He was ashamed. That feeling lingered, and he was never comfortable in church after that.
他很惭愧。这种感觉持续着,此后他在教堂里就再没有自在过。

In short, Internet Explorer 5 offers terrific new tools as well as some lingering annoyances.
总的说来,IE 5浏览器提供了更棒的插件,同时也会带来一些延迟的问题。

[选自:CNN: Internet Explorer 5: Looks the same, works better]

Time really flies, Microsoft has launched its IE 11 so far.
时光飞逝啊,微软的IE都出到第11版了。

2. indulgence n. 放纵;嗜好;纵容。例:

Is self forgiveness just another form of self indulgence?
自我宽恕是放纵自我的另一种表现形式么?

【词根】indulge vi. 沉溺;满足;放任  vt. 满足;纵容;使高兴;使沉迷于…

indulgently adv. 溺爱地;放任地

indulgent adj. 放纵的;宽容的;任性的

3. impulsively adv. 有推动力地。例:

Don't respond immediately or impulsively. Doing so can make matters worse.
不要立即或冲动地对失败做出回应,这样会让事情更糟。

He can be very emotional, act impulsively.
他可以变得很情绪化,行为冲动。

[选自:MSN: Ex-U.N. envoy: Karzai may have drug problem]

4. plausible adj. 貌似真实的,貌似可信的,貌似有理的;花言巧语的。在使用中是肯定还是否定意,具体要依上下文而定。原文中表达了肯定,前两个解释有一定道理,但是还有呢,接着进行了分析。例:

A more plausible explanation would seem to be that people are fed up with the administration.
一个更合理的解释似乎是人们对行政机关感到厌倦。

Many GOP insiders see him as the most plausible nominee and Obama's strongest potential challenger.
很多共和党的内部人士把他看作是最可信的参选人,也是奥巴马最强有力的潜在对手。
[GOP是美国共和党的别称,大老党。Grand Old Party]

[选自:NPR: AP-GfK Poll: Public Unsettled On Obama Challenger]

5. texture n. 质地;纹理;结构;本质,实质。例:

It is used in moisturizers to give them a wonderfully silky texture.
它被用于各种保湿霜中,使之产生丝般的美妙手感。

Sometimes, she picks woods that have some texture, so that scratches won't be as visible.
有时,她选取的木材有某种纹理,以致于挖痕并不明显。

[选自:WSJ: Stylish and Pet-Friendly Décor]

6. interacting n. 相互作用;相互制约  v. 互相影响;互相作用(interact的ing形式)。例:

Caregivers in the baby and toddler room should be on the floor interacting with the babies.
在婴孩或是幼儿室里的工作人员应该在那里和孩子们一起玩,相互亲近。

interacting causes影响因素

interacting mutation基因相关突变

The two interacting galaxies are separated from each other by tens of thousands of light-years.
这两个相互影响的星系将彼此分开了数以万计光年。
[光年是距离哦,不是时间。]

[选自:MSN: When Galaxies Meet: Hubble Telescope Snaps Photo for 21st Birthday – Tech]

[When my most recent book {Brandwashed} was released1,] I teamed up [with2 a local bookstore] [to conduct an experiment about the difference] (between the online and offline shopping experience). I [carefully] instructed a group of volunteers [to promote my book in two different ways]. The first was a fairly hands-off 3 approach. [Whenever a customer would inquire about my book,] the volunteer would take them [over to the shelf] and point to it. [Out of 20 such requests], six customers proceededwith the purchase.
当我的新书《洗脑术》发行时,我联手当地一家书店,进行了一个有关线上和线下购物体验的差异试验。我小心翼翼地指示一群志愿者以两种不同的方式来促销我的书。第一种方法是不去干涉客户,当他们向志愿者询问我的书时,志愿者只是把他们带到货架或者指向货架的方向。20名咨询者中,有6位购买了我的书。

注:1. release vt. 释放;发射;让与;允许发表;出版发行 n. 释放;发布;让与。文中为出版发行意。例:

He is releasing an album of love songs.
他将发行一张情歌专辑。

He was released from custody the next day.
他第二天被从拘留中释放。

We released that fish.
我们把那条小鱼放生了。

[应时注:This sentence was spoken by a beautiful American girl that I met when I was swimming in the sea in Lamma Island in Hong Kong. At that day, I caught a small fish, and I gave it as a gift to this girl. And a few minutes later, when I saw her empty hands, she explained to me with this sentence.这句话是一个漂亮的美国小姑娘跟我说的,当时我在香港南丫岛的海边游泳。那天我抓到了一条小鱼就送给她了。几分钟后我看她两手空空,她就跟我说了这句话。]

2. team up with  与…合作,与…协作。例:

To put this hypothesis to the test, I teamed upwith my colleagues – the psychologists George Newman and Paul Bloom.
我与我的大学同学,心理学家乔治·纽曼和保罗·布鲁姆一起合作,将这一假设融入到了测试中。

Maybe it could team up with Facebook for this one and make something social and awesome.
可能可以和脸书就这个合作,让其更具社交性以及更炫酷。

[选自:CNN: Why Xbox Kinect could be -- but won't be -- the future of TV]

3. hands-off adj. 不干涉的;不插手的。例:

The point is that this time, unlike in the 1930s, the government didn’t take a hands-off attitude while much of the banking system collapsed.
关键是这次,不像1930年代那时,政府没有在大部分的银行业系统崩溃之时采取甩手不管的态度。

4. proceed vi. 开始;继续进行;发生;行进。不及物动词,句中跟with连用作谓语。文中采继续进行意,继续进行了购买行为。例:

The group proceeded with a march they knew would lead to bloodshed.
这群人继续进行他们知道会导致流血事件的一次游行。

The US Supreme Court was also considering whether to allow Reynolds' execution to proceed.
美国最高法院也同样在考虑雷诺是否应继续其执行。

[选自:BBC: Ohio governor delays executions]

The second option [also] involved going over to the shelf but, [this time], removing the book and them [subtly1] holding onto it [for just an extra moment] [before placing it in the customer’s hands]. [Of the 20 people (who were handed the book],) 13 ended up buying it. [Just] physically passing the book showed a big difference [in sales]. Why? We feel something [similar to a sense] (of ownership) [when we hold things [in our hand].] Thats why we establish or reestablish2 connection [by greeting strangers and friends with a handshake]. [In this case], having to then let go of the book after holding it might generate a subtle3 sense (of loss), and motivate us [even more].
第二种是,志愿者将客户带到货架旁边,但这次不同的是,志愿者取下图书,巧妙地在自己手上多拿一会儿才递给消费者。在20位拿到书的咨询者中,最终有13位买了书。仅仅是递书,在销售上引起了巨大的差异。为什么呢?当我们把东西握在手中时会有类似的所有感。这就是为什么我们可以通过和陌生人或者朋友握手来建立或者增进友谊。在这个例子中,当把原本捧在手中的书拿走后会产生微妙的失去感,而促使我们做出甚至更多的购买行为。

注:1. subtly adv. 精细地;巧妙地;敏锐地。例:

There are factors that subtly influence the sex of an offspring.
有一些因素对后代的性别会产生微妙的影响。

The study used pictures of male and female faces which had been subtly digitally manipulated.
该研究使用了一些经过数字细微处理过的男人和女人的脸部照片。

[选自:BBC: The best look to make yourself attractive]

2. reestablish vt. 恢复,重建;复兴。例:

Don't get discouraged if it takes that long to reestablish your professional identity, or create a new one, even if you're doing everything right.
需要重建自己的专业形象、或创造一个全新的形象。 即使一步不错,这个过程也需要一年时间,但是千万不要为此而感到沮丧。

The bank hopes eventually to reestablish the relationship, but that now appears unlikely.
银行希望最终能恢复合作关系,但现在看来似乎毫无希望。

[选自:CNN: ASIANOW - TIME Asia | TIME Finance: Help Wanted?]

3. subtle adj. 微妙的;精细的;敏感的;狡猾的;稀薄的。例:

This change is rather subtle, but it has some important implications.
这个变化十分微妙,但是它却有些重要的含义。

But there's a subtle tension embedded in the drawings he did on his own time.
但他在私人时间创作的画作中透露着些许紧张。

[选自:WSJ: Ilya Kabakov's Art at New York's Edelman Arts Gallery]

A recent study [also] revealed the power (of touch), [in this case] [when it came to conventional mail.] A deeper and longer-lasting1impression (of a message) was formed [when delivered [in a letter],] [as opposed to2 receiving the same message online]. Brain imaging showed that, [on touching the paper], the emotional center (of the brain) was activated3, [thus] [forming a stronger bond4]. The study [also] indicated that [once touch becomes part of the process,] it could translate into a sense (of possession).
最近的一项研究也显示了触摸的力量。拿传统信件来说,与在网上收到同样内容的信息相比,邮递信件会给人产生更深刻、持久的印象。脑成像表明,触摸纸张时,大脑情感中枢会被激活,从而产生更强的关联。这项研究还表明,一旦触摸成为过程的一部分,它可以转化为一种占有感。

注:1. longer-lasting adj. 持久的。例:

But it will take much stronger and longer-lasting multilateral assistance to help these people shift from being victims to becoming the principal agents of recovery.
但是,要帮助这些人民从冲突受害者转而成为经济恢复的主要推动者,将需要更有效、更持久的多边援助。

2. as opposed to 与…截然相反;对照。例:

Shedding emotional tears, as opposed to tears caused by physical pain, is thought to be a uniquely human ability, the purpose of which is unknown.
因情流泪,相对于因生理痛苦流泪来说,被认为是人类独有的一种能力,不过这项能力的用途所在尚不明确。

Too much time is spent on team play as opposed to making the individuals better players.
太多的时间花在了团队协作上,而非提高个人能力。

[选自:BBC: Twentyman Talks Back]

3. activate v. 使激活;使活动起来。句中为activate的过去分词。例:

In order to do this you need to ensure the server view is activated.
为了进行这些操作,您需要确保服务器窗口已激活。

Video cameras with night vision can be activated by movement.
有夜视功能的摄像机能被物体的活动激活。

4. bond n. 债券;结合;约定;粘合剂。例:

The experience created a very special bond between us.
这段经历构成了我们之间一条非常特殊的纽带。

vi. 结合,团结在一起

vt. 使结合;以…作保。例:

They all bonded while writing graffiti together.
他们在一起涂鸦时相识。

词组:on bond保释。例:

Updyke, who spent a night in jail after his arrest, is free on bond.
Updyke先生,被捕后被监狱扣留了一夜,现已保释。

[选自:MSN: Cops: Auburn tree poisoning suspect attacked]

This sense (of ownership) is [simply] [not] part (of the equation1 ) [in the online shopping experience].
这种拥有感就是网购体验所不能相比的部分。

注:1. equation原义是方程、等式的意思,在这里如果直译的话显得不好理解,为什么突然冒出一个方程?而其引申义制衡局面则好理解很多,句中的制衡局面显然是网购和线下实体购买,所以在这里译为相比即可。在阅读和翻译时,不要拘囿于字面意思。例:

But in terms of the impact on human society, threat is only part of the equation.
但考虑到对人类社会的影响,威胁只不过是该局面的一部分。

[选自:BBC: Coral reefs heading for fishing and climate crisis]