2013年12月大学英语六级考试真题(第二套)
作者:沪江英语|2013年12月07日 20:11

Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay about the impact of the information explosion by referring to the saying "A wealth of information creates apoverty of attention. " You can give examples to illustrate your point and then explainwhat you can do to avoid being distracted by irrelevant information. You shouldwrite at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
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Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)Section A
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end ofeach conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both theconversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be apause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A., B., C. and D), anddecide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1with a single line through the centre.
1. A. Labor problems.
B. Weather conditions.
C. An error in the order.
D.Misplacing'of goods.
2. A. What the woman says makes a lot of sense.
B. The rich are opposed to social welfare.
C. He is sympathetic with poor people.
D.He agrees with Mr. Johnson's views.
3. A. He will be practicing soccer.
B. He has work to finish in time.
C. He will be attending a meeting.
D.He has a tough problem to solve.
4. A. Mary should get rid of her pet as soon as possible.
B. Mary will not be able to keep a dog in the building.
C. Mary is not happy with the ban on pet animals.
D.Mary might as well send her dog to her relative.
5. A. The twins' voices are quite different.
B. Lisa and Gale are not very much alike.
C. He does not believe they are twin sisters.
D.The woman seems a bit hard of hearing.
6. A. The serious economic crisis in Britain. 、
B. A package deal to be signed in November.
C. A message from their business associates.
D.Their ability to deal with financial problems.
7. A. It is impossible to remove the stain completely.
B. The man will be charged extra for the service.
C. The man has to go to the main cleaning facility.
D.Cleaning the pants will take longer than usual.
8. A. European markets.
B. A protest rally.
C. Luxury goods.
D.Imported products.Conversation One
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9. A. He made a business trip.
B. He had a quarrel with Marsha.
C. He talked to her on the phone.
D.He resolved a budget problem.
10. A. She may have to be fired for poor performance.
B. She has developed some serious mental problem.
C. She is in charge of the firm's budget planning.
D.She supervises a number of important projects.
11. A. She failed to arrive at the airport on time.
B. David promised to go on the trip in her place,
C. Something unexpected happened at her home.
D.She was not feeling herself on that day.
12. A. He frequently gets things mixed up.
B. He is always finding fault with Marsha.
C. He Ires been trying hard to cover for Marsha.
D.He often fails to follow through on his projects.
Conversation Two
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
13. A. They are better sheltered from all the outside temptations.
B. They are usually more motivated to compete with their peers.
C. They have more opportunities to develop their leadership skills.
D.They take an active part in more extracurricular activities.
14. A. Its chief positions are held by women.
B. Its teaching staff consists of women only.
C. Its students aim at managerial posts.
D.Its students are role models of women.
15. A. It is under adequate control.
B. It is traditional but coloufful.
C. They are more or less isolated from the outside world.
D.They have ample opportunities to meet the opposite sex.
Section B
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hearsome questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you heara question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A., B., C. andD ). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through thecentre.
Passage One
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A. By invading the personal space of listeners.
B. By making gestures at strategic points.
C. By speaking in a deep, loud voice.
D.By speaking with the local accent.
17. A. To promote sportsmanship among business owners.
B. To encourage people to support local sports groups.
C. To raise money for a forthcoming local sports event.
D.To show his family's contribution to the community.
18. A. They are known to be the style of the sports world.
B. They would certainly appeal to his audience.
C. They represent the latest fashion in the business circles.
D.They are believed to communicate power and influence.
19. A. To cover up his own nervousness.
B. To create a warm personal atmosphere.
C. To enhance the effect of background music.
D.To allow the audience to better enjoy his slides.
Passage Two
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
20. A. She was the first educated slave of John Wheatley's.
B. She was the greatest female poet in Colonial America.
C. She was born about the time of the War of Independence.
D.She was the first African-American slave to publish a book.
21. A. Revise it a number of times.
B. Obtain consent from her owner.
C. Go through a scholarly examination.
D.Turn to the colonial governor for help.
22. A. Literary works calling for the abolition of slavery.
B. Religious scripts popular among slaves in America.
C. A rich stock of manuscripts left by historical figures.
D.Lots of lost works written by African-American women.
Passage Three
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. A. It is a trait of generous character
B. It is a reflection of self-esteem. .
C. It is an indicator of high intelligence.
D.It is a sign of happiness and confidence.
24. A. Itwas self-defeating.
B. It was aggressive.
C. It was the essence of comedy.
D.It was something admirable.
25. A. It is a double-edged sword.
B. It is a feature of a given culture.
C. It is a unique gift of human beings.
D.It is a result of both nature and nurture.
Section C
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the firsttime, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for thesecond time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard.Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you havewritten.
It is important that we be mindful of the earth, the planet out of which we are born and by which weare nourished, guided, healed—the planet, however, which we have 26________ to a considerable degree inthese past two centuries of 27________ exploitation. This exploitation has reached such 28________that presently itappears that some hundreds of thousands of species will be 29________ before the end of the century.
In our times, human shrewdness has mastered the deep 30________ of the earth at a level far beyond thecapacities of earlier peoples. We can break the mountains apart; we can drain the rivers and flood thevalleys. We can turn the most luxuriant forests into throwaway paper products. We can 31________the greatgrass cover of the western plains and pour 32________chemicals into the soil until the soft is dead and blowsaway in the wind. We can pollute the air with acids, the rivers with sewage (污水), the seas with oil. Wecan invent computers 33________processing ten million calculations per second. And why? To increase thevolume and the speed with which we move natural resources through the consumer economy to the junkpile or the waste heap. Our managerial skills are measured by the competence 34________in accelerating thisprocess. If in these activities the physical features of the planet are damaged, if the environment is madeinhospitable for 35________living species, then so be it. We are, supposedly, creating a technological wonderworld.
PartIII Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Section A
Direction:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word foreach blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read thepassage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identifiedby a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with asingle line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more thanonce~
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
Quite often, educators tell families of children who are learning English as a second language to speakonly English, and not their native language, at home. Although these educators may have good 36________,their advice to families is misguided, and it 37________from misunderstandings about the process of languageacquisition. Educators may fear that children hearing two languages will become 38________ confused and thustheir language development will be 39________; this concern is not documented in the literature. Children arecapable of learning more than one language, whether 40________or sequentially (依次地). In fact, most
children outside of the United States are expected to become bilingual or even, in many cases,multilingual. Globally, knowing more than one language is viewed as an 41________ and even a necessity inmany areas.
It is also of concern that the .misguided advice that students should speak only English is givenprimarily to poor families with limited educational opportunities, not to wealthier families who have manyeducational advantages. Since children from poor families often are 42________as at-risk for academic failure,teachers believe that advising families to speak English only is appropriate. Teachers consider learning twolanguages to be too 43________for children from poor families, believing that the children are alreadyburdened by their home situations.
If families do not know English or have limited English skills themselves, how can they communicatein English? Advising non-English-speaking families to speak only English is 44________to telling them not tocommunicate with or interact with their children. Moreover, the 45________message is that the family's nativelanguage is not important or valued.
A. asset I.permanently
B. delayed J. prevalent
C. deviates K.simultaneously
D.equivalent L. stems
E.identified M. successively
F. intentions N. underlying
G.object O.visualizing
H. overwhelming
Section B
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Eachparagraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the correspondingletter on Answer Sheet 2.
The Uses of Difficulty
The brain likes a challenge—and putting a few obstacles in its way may well boost its creativity.
[A] Jack White, the former frontman of the White Stripes and an influential figure among fellowmusicians, likes to make things difficult for himself. He uses cheap guitars that won't stay in shape orin tune. When performing, he positions his instruments in a way that is deliberately inconvenient, sothat switching from guitar to organ mid-song involves a mad dash across the stage. Why? Becausehe's on the run from what he describes as a disease that preys on every artist: "ease of use". Whenmaking music gets too easy, says White, it becomes harder to make it sing.
[ B] It's an odd thought. Why would anyone make their work more difficult than it already is? Yet weknow that difficulty can pay unexpected dividends. In 1966, soon after the Beatles had finished workon "Rubber Soul", Paul McCartney looked into the possibility of going to America to record theirnext album. The equipment in American studios was more advanced than anything in Britain, whichhad led the Beatles' great rivals, the Rolling Stones, to make their latest album, "Aftermath", in LosAngeles. McCartney found that EMI's (百代唱片) contractual clauses made it prohibitively expensiveto follow suit, and the Beatles had to make do with the primitive technology of Abbey Road.
[C] Lucky for us. Over the next two years they made their most groundbreaking work, turning therecording studio into a magical instrument of its own. Precisely because they were working with oldofashioned machines, George Martin and his team of engineers were forced to apply every ounce oftheir creativity to solve the problems posed to them by Lennon and McCartney. Songs like"Tomorrow Never Knows", " Strawberry Fields Forever", and "A Day in the Life" featuredrevolutionary sound effects that dazzled and mystified Martin's American counterparts.
[D] Sometimes it's only when a difficulty is removed that we realise what it was doing for us. For morethan two decades, starting in the 1960s, the poet Ted Hughes sat on the judging panel of an annualpoetry competition for British schoolchildren. During the 1980s he noticed an increasing number oflong poems among the submissions, with some running to 70 or 80 pages. These poems were verballyinventive and fluent, but also "strangely boring". After making inquiries Hughes discovered that theywere being composed on computers, then just finding their way into British homes.
[E] You might have thought any tool which enables a writer to get words on to the page would be anadvantage. But there may be a cost to such facility. Ifi an interview with the Paris Review Hughesspeculated that when a person puts pen to paper, "you meet the terrible resistance of what happenedyour first year at it, when you couldn't write at all". As the brain attempts to force the unsteady handto do its bidding, the tension between the two results in a more compressed, psychologically denserexpression. Remove that resistance and you are more likely to produce a 70-page ramble (不找边际的长篇大论).
[F] Our brains respond better to difficulty than we imagine. In schools, teachers and pupils alike oftenassume that if a concept has been easy to learn, then the lesson has been successful. But numerousstudies have now found that when classroom material is made harder to absorb, pupils retain more of it over the long term, and understand it on a deeper level.
[G] As a poet, Ted Hughes had an acute sensitivity to the way in which constraints on self-expression,like the disciplines of metre and rhyme (韵律), spur creative thought. What applies to poets andmusicians also applies to our daily lives. We tend to equate (等同)happiness with freedom, but, asthe psychotherapist and writer Adam Phillips has observed, without obstacles to our desires it'sharder to know what we want, or where we're heading. He tells the story of a patient, a first-timemother who complained that her young son was always clinging to her, wrapping himself around herlegs wherever she went. She never had a moment to herself, she said, because her son was "alwaysin the way". When Phillips asked her where she would go if he wasn't in the way, she repliedcheerfully, "Oh, I wouldn't know where I was!"
[H] Take another common obstacle: lack of money. People often assume that more money will makethem happier. But economists who study the relationship between money and happiness haveconsistently found that, above a certain income, the two do not reliably correlate. Despite the easewith which the rich can acquire almost anything they desire, they are just as likely to be unhappy asthe middle classes. In this regard at least, F. Scott Fitzgerald was wrong.
[I] Indeed, ease of acquisition is the problem. The novelist Edward St Aubyn has a narrator remark ofthe very rich that, "not having to consider affordability, their desires rambled on like unstoppablebores, relentless (持续不断的) and whimsical (反复无常的) at the same time. " When BostonCollege, a private research university, wanted a better feel for its potential donors, it asked thepsychologist Robert Kenny to investigate the mindset of the super-rich. He surveyed 165 households,most of which had a net worth of $ 25m or more. He found that many of his subjects were confusedby the infinite options their money presented them with. They found it hard to know what to want,creating a kind of existential bafflement. One of them put it like this: "You know, Bob, you can justbuy so much stuff, and when you get to the point where you can just buy so much stuff, now what are you going to do?"
[J] The Internet makes information billionaires out of all of us, and the architects of our onlineexperiences are catching on to the need to make things creatively difficult. Twitter's huge success isrooted in the simple but profound insight that in a medium'with infinite space for serf-expression, themost interesting thing we can do is restrict ourselves to 140 characters. The music service This Is MyJam helps people navigate the tens of millions of tracks now available instantly via Spotify andiTunes. Users pick their favourite song of the week to share with others. They only get to chooseone. The service was only launched this year,,but by the end of September 650,000 jams had beenchosen. Its cofounder Matt Ogle explains its raison d'etre (存在的理由) like this: "In an age ofendless choice, we were missing a way to say: This. This is the one you should listen to'. "
[K] Today's world offers more opportunity than ever to follow the advice of the Walker Brothers and make it easy on ourselves. Compared with a hundred years ago, our lives are less tightly bound bysocial norms and physics! Constraints. Technology has cut out much of life's donkeywork, and wehave more freedoms than ever: we can wear what we like and communicate with hundreds of friendsat once at the click of a mouse. Obstacles are everywhere disappearing. Few of us wish to turn theclock back, but perhaps we need to remind ourselves how useful the right obstacles can be.Sometimes, the best route to fulfilment is the path of more resistance.
46. The rigorous requirements placed on the writing of poetry stimulate the poet's creativity.
47. With creativity, even old-fashioned instruments may produce spectacular sound effects.
48. More money does not necessarily bring greater happiness.
49. It is a false assumption that lessons should be made easier to learn.
50. Obstacles deliberately placed in the creation of music contribute to its success.51. Those who enjoy total freedom may not find themselves happy.
52. Ted Hughes discovered many long poems submitted for poetry competition were composed on computers.
53. Maybe we need to bear in mind that the right obstacles help lead us to greater achievements.
54. An investigation found that many of the super-rich were baffled by the infinite choices their money made available.
55. One free social networking website ttwned out to be successful because it limited each posting to one hundred and forty characters.
Section C
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions orunfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A , B, C andD ). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
There was a time not long ago when new science Ph. D. s in the United States were expected topursue a career path in academ/a (学术界).But today, most graduates end up working outsideacademia, not only in industry but also in careers such as science policy, communications, and patentlaw. partly this is a result of how bleak the academic job market is, but there's also a rising awareness ofcareer options that Ph.D. scientists haven't trained for directly—but for which they have usefulknowledge, skills, and experience. Still, there's a huge disconnect between the way we currently trainscientists and the actual employment opportunities available for them, and an urgent need for dramaticimprovements in training programs to help close the gap, One critical step that could help to drive changewould be to require Ph.D. students and postdoctoral scientists to follow an individual development plan(IDP).
In 2002, the U. S. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology recommended that everypostdoctoral researcher put together an IDP in consultation with an adviser. Since then, several academicinstitutions have begun to require IDPs for postdocs. And in June, the U. S. National Institutes of Health(NIH) Biomedical Research Workforce Working Group recommended that the NIH require IDPs for theapproximately 32,000 postdoctoral researchers they support. Other funding agencies, public and private,are moving in a similar direction.
IDPs have long been used by government agencies and the private sector to achieve specific goals forthe employee and the organization. The aim is to ensure that employees have an explicit tool to help themunderstand their own abilities and aspirations, determine career possibilities , and set ( usually short-term)goals. In science, graduate students and new Ph.D. scientists can use an IDP to identify and navigate aneffective career path.
A free Web application for this purpose, called myIDP, has become available this week. It's designed to guide early-career scientists through a confidential,,rigorous process of introspection (内省) to create acustomized career plan. Guided by expert knowledge from a panel of science-focused career advisers,each trainee's self-assessment is used to rank a set of career trajectories (轨迹). After the user hasidentified a long-term career goal, myIDP walks her or him through the process of setting short-term goalsdirected toward accumulating new skills and experiences important for that career choice.
Although surveys reveal the IDP process to be useful, trainees report a need for additional resourcesto help them identify a long-term career path and complete an IDP. Thus, myIDP will be most effective.when it's embedded in larger career-development efforts. For example, universities could incorporate IDPsinto their graduate curricula to help students discuss, plan, prepare for, and achieve their long-termcareer goals.
56. What do we learn about new science Ph.D. s in the United States today?
A. They lack the skills and expertise needed for their jobs.
B. They can choose from a wider range of well-paying jobs.
C. They often have to seek jobs outside the academic circle.
D.They are regarded as the nation's driving force of change.
57. What does the author say about America's Ph, D. training?
A. It should be improved to better suit the job market.
B. It is closely linked to future career requirements.
C. It should be re-oriented to careers outside academia.
D.It includes a great variety of practical courses.
58. What was recommended for Ph. D. s and postdoctoral researchers?
A. They meet the urgent needs of the corporate world.
B. A long-term career goal be set as early as possible
C. An IDP be made in consultation with an adviser.
D.They acquire an explicit tool to help obtain jobs.
59. Government agencies and the private sector often use IDPs to________
A. bring into full play the skills and expertise of their postdoctoral researchers
B. help employees make the best use of their abilities to achieve their career goals
C. place employees in the most appropriate positions
D.hire the most suitable candidates to work for them
60. What do we know about myIDP?
A. It is an effective tool of self-assessment and introspection for better career plans.
B. It enables people to look into various possibilities and choose the career they love.
C. It promises a long-term career path.
D.It is part of the graduate curricula.
Passage Two
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Just over a decade into the 21st century, women's progress can be celebrated across a range of fields.They hold the highest political offices from Thailand to Brazil, Costa Rica to Australia. A woman holds thetop spot at the International Monetary Fund; another won the Nobel Prize in economics. Self-madebillionaires in Beijing, tech innovators in Silicon Valley, pioneering justices in Ghana—in these andcountless other areas, women are leaving their mark.
But hold the applause. In Saudi Arabia, women aren't allowed to drive. In Pakistan,1,000 womendie in honor killings every year. In the developed world, women lag behind men in pay and politicalpower. The poverty rate among women in the U.S. rose to I4.5% last year.
To measure the state ofwomen's progress. Newsweek ranked 165 countries, looking at five areas thataffect women's lives: treatment under the law, workforce participation, political power, and access toeducation and health care. Analyzing data from the United Nations and the World EconomicForum,among others, and consulting with experts and academics, we measured 28 factors to come up with ourmakings.
Countries with the highest scores tend to be clustered in the West, where gender :discrimination isagain.st the law, and equal rightsare constitutionally enshrined (神圣化). But there were some surprises.Some otherwise high-'ranking countries had relatively low scores for political representation. Canadaranked third overall but 26th in power, behind countries such as Cuba and Burundi. Does this suggest thata woman in a nation's top office translates to better lives for women in general? Not exactly. "Trying toquantify or measure the impact of women in politics is hard because in very few countries have there beenenough women in politics to make a difference," says Anne-Marie Goetz, peace and security adviser forU.N. Women.
Of course, no index can account for everything. Declaring that one country is better than another inthe way that it treats more than half its citizens means relying on broad strokes and generalities. Somethings simply can't be measured. And cross-cultural comparisons can't account for differences of opinion.Certain conclusions are nonetheless clear. For one thing, our index backs up a simple but profoundstatement made by Hillary Clinton at the recent Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit. "When weliberate the economic potential of women, we elevate the economic performance of communities, nations,and the world," she said. "There's a stimulative effect that kicks in when women have greater access tojobs and the economic lives of our countries: Greater political stability. Fewer military conflicts. Morefood. More educational opportunity for children. By harnessing the economic potential of all women, weboost opportunity for all people. "
61. What does the author think about women's progress so far?
A. It still leaves much to be desired.
C. It has greatly changed women's fate.
B. It is too remarkable to be measured.
D.It is achieved through hard struggle.
62. In what countries have women made the greatest progress?
A. Where women hold key posts in government.
B. Where women's rights are protected by law.
C. Where women's participation in management is high.
D.Where women enjoy better education and health care.
63. What do Newsweek rankings reveal about women in Canada?
A. They care little about political participation.
B. They are generally treated as equals by men.C. They have a surprisingly low social status.D.They are underrepresented in politics.
64. What does Anne-Marie Goetz think of a woman being in a nation's top office?
A. It does not necessarily raise women's political awareness.
B. It does not guarantee a better life for the nation's women.
C. It. enhances women's status.
D.It boosts women's confidence.
65. What does Hillary Clinton suggest we do to make the world a better place?
A. Give women more political power.
B. Stimulate women's creativity.
C. Allow women access to education.
D.Tap women's economic potential.

Part IV Translation (30 minutes)
Directions : For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English.You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
中国人自古以来就在中秋时节庆祝丰收。这与北美地区庆祝感恩节的习俗十分相似。过中秋节的习俗二f唐代早期在中国各地开始流行。中秋节在农历八月十五,是人们拜月的节日。这天夜晚皓月当空,人们合家团聚,共赏明月。2006年,中秋节被列为中国的文化遗产,2008年又被定为公共假日。月饼被视为中秋节不町或缺的美食。人们将月饼作为礼物馈赠亲友或在家庭聚会上享甩。传统的月饼上带有“寿(longevity)”、“福”或“和”等字样。
      

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