获得4.3k好评的答案@ Balaji Viswanathan:

 

Law of Supply & Demand: 
供求规律:

This is the founding block of economics.
这是经济学的基石。

Whenever supply of something increases its price decreases and whenever supply decreases price increases.
物品供给增长则价格下跌,供应减少则价格上涨。

Thus, when you have excess production of corn, food prices decrease and vice versa.
因而谷物产量过剩,食物价格则下降;反之亦然。

Think of this intuitively
You will find its applications in 1000s of places.

凭直觉判断,你会发觉这条定律适应于千千万万个地方。

 

Growth rate: 
增长率:

The growth of an economy is commonly measured in terms of GDP growth rate.
经济体的增长一般是依据国内生产总值增长率来衡量的。

Since GDP is a measure of national income, this growth rate is a rough proxy for how an average person's income grows every year.
国内生产总值衡量国家的收入,所以增长率可以粗略衡量平均每人每年收入增长多少。

 

Inflation:

通货膨胀:

You already know that the price of most products now are higher than in your grandfather's time.
你知道现在大部分产品的价格比你祖父那时要高得多。

Inflation (measured in percent) is measure of how much a bunch of products have increased in price from last year.
通货膨胀(以百分比计)衡量自上一年起众多产品价格的涨幅。

In mature economies, annual inflation is around 2% - that means on an average the prices of stuff goes up by 2% every year.
成熟的经济体每年的通货膨胀率约为2%——即物品价格平均每年上涨2%。

The fundamental role of central banks is to manage this rate and keep it to a low positive number.
中央银行的基本作用即控制通胀率,确保其增长呈小幅态势。

 

Interest Rates: