1)代词及be动词
  主格 I we you you she/he/it they
  宾格 me us you you her/him/it them
  代词所有格 my our your your her/his/its their
  名词性代词 mine ours yours yours hers/his/its theirs
  be动词现在时 Am are are are is are
  be动词过去时 was were were were was were

2)名词的复数
  规则变化的名词复数形式
  规则1 一般情况+s e.g. shell→shells  toy→toys
  规则2 以s, x, ch, sh结尾+es e.g. fox→foxes  church→churches
  规则3 以o结尾+s或+es e.g. radio→radios  potato→potatoes
  规则4 以f, fe结尾的,变f, fe为ves e.g. life→lives  half→halves
  规则5 以辅音字母+y结尾, 变y为i+es e.g. sky→skies  study→studies

3)动词的第三人称单数形式
  规则1 一般情况+s e.g. like-likes, look-looks
  规则2 以s, x, ch, sh和o结尾+es e.g. do-does, catch-catches
  规则3 以辅音字母+y结尾, 变y为i+es e.g. carry-carries, fly-flies

4)动词现在分词
  规则1 一般动词加-ing e.g. look-looking,  read-reading,  play-playing
  规则2 以不发音的字母结尾的单词去e加-ing e.g. make-making, take-taking, arrive-arriving
  规则3 重读闭音节词结尾, 即单词中只有一个元音字母,其后紧跟一个辅音字母的词,双写辅音字母再加-ing  e. g. run-running, sit-sitting, get-getting, swim-swimming, stop-stopping

5)动词过去式

      规则动词变化
    规则1
一般动词加-ed e.g. look-looked, watch-watched, play-played
  规则2 以e结尾的加-d e.g. close-closed, arrive-arrived
  规则3 以辅音字母y结尾的变y为i加-ed cry-cried, carry-carried
  规则4 重读闭音节词结尾, 即单词中只有一个元音字母,其后紧跟一个辅音字母的词,双写辅音字母再加-ed  stop-stopped

      过去式的读音
  在清辅音后面(除外)读/t/ e.g. walked, jumped
  在浊辅音和元音后读/d/ e.g. washed, watched
  在/t/,/d/后读/id/ e.g. waited, hated

6)形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

      比较级
      规则1 一般加-er e.g. high-higher
  规则2 以e结尾加-r nice-nicer
  规则3 以辅音字母加y结尾,变y为i再加-er busy-busier
  则4
重读闭音节结尾, 双写辅音字母再加-er fat-fatter

      最高级
      规则1 一般加-est e.g. high-highest
  规则2 以e结尾加-st nice-nicest
  规则3 以辅音字母加y结尾,变y为i再加-est busy-busiest
  规则4 重读闭音节结尾, 双写辅音字母再加--est fat-fattest

7)常见缩写:
  is='s I am=I'm are='re
  is not=isn't /iznt/ are not=aren't /a:nt/
  do not=don't
  does not=doesn't
  was='s
  did not=didn't
  can not=can't
  have='ve
  has='s
  have not=haven't
  has not=hasn't
  will='ll
      will not=won't
  shall not=shan't