2008年胡锦涛在纪念改革开放30周年大会上的讲话
来源:网络|2010年11月28日 15:11

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同志们,


Comrades,


1978年12月18日,也就是30年前的今天,党的十一届三中全会隆重召开。这次会议,实现了新中国成立以来我们党历史上具有深远意义的伟大转折,开启了我国改革开放历史新时期。从此,党领导全国各族人民在新的历史条件下开始了新的伟大革命。


On this day 30 years ago, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) was convened. This meeting ushered in a historic period of reform and opening up. A meeting of great significance, it marked a turning point in the Party's history since the founding of New China in 1949. At that historic moment, Chinese people of all ethnic groups started a great new revolution under the leadership of the CPC.


今天,我们在这里集会,纪念党的十一届三中全会召开30周年,就是要充分认识改革开放的重大意义和伟大成就,深刻总结改革开放的伟大历程和宝贵经验,坚持党的十一届三中全会精神,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,在中国特色社会主义道路上,继续把改革开放伟大事业推向前进。


As we gather here today to mark the 30th anniversary of the Third Plenary Session, we must fully recognize the great significance and achievements of reform and opening up, review the course we have traversed and sum up our experience over the past 30 years. We must stick to the spirit of that meeting, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and put into practice the Scientific Outlook on Development under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thinking of the "Three Represents." We shall make greater strides in reform and opening up as we march on the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.


党的十一届三中全会是在党和国家面临向何处去的重大历史关头召开的。1976年10月粉碎“四人帮”之后,广大干部群众强烈要求纠正“文化大革命”的错误,彻底扭转十年内乱造成的严重局势,使党和国家从危难中重新奋起。但是,这一顺应时势的愿望遭到严重阻碍,党和国家工作在前进中出现徘徊局面。与此同时,世界经济快速发展,科技进步日新月异,国家建设百业待兴,真理标准讨论热潮涌起。国内外大势呼唤我们党尽快就关系党和国家前途命运的大政方针作出政治决断和战略抉择。


The Third Plenary Session was convened at an important historical juncture when the Party and our country were at a crossroads. After the overthrow of the Gang of Four, there was strong public demand that the mistakes of the Cultural Revolution be corrected, and the serious situation created by 10 years of chaos reversed. Our Party and nation would thus emerge from a difficult period. However, this understandable wish met with strong obstacles, and there was hesitation over the future work of the Party and the nation. At the same time, the world economy was developing rapidly. Science and technology were making progress every day. Within China, there was an urgent need for reconstruction. On the ideological front, a heated debate on the "criterion for truth" was going on throughout the country. Therefore, it was the internal and external situation that demands that the Party and the nation had to make political decisions and the strategic choice vital to the fate of the Party as well as the nation.


在邓小平同志领导下和其他老一辈革命家支持下,党的十一届三中全会开始全面认真纠正“文化大革命”中及其以前的“左”倾错误,坚决批判了“两个凡是”的错误方针,充分肯定了必须完整、准确地掌握毛泽东思想的科学体系,高度评价了关于真理标准问题的讨论,确定了解放思想、开动脑筋、实事求是、团结一致向前看的指导方针,果断停止使用“以阶级斗争为纲”的口号,作出了把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策。


Led by Comrade Deng Xiaoping and supported by other veteran revolutionaries, the Third Plenary Session began correcting "Leftist" mistakes of all forms committed before and during the "cultural revolution," firmly repudiated the fallacy of the "two whatevers" (i.e. Whatever has been said and done by Mao Zedong is right and whatever has been stipulated by him must not be changed). The Session affirmed that the scientific system of Mao Zedong Thought must be correctly understood in its full context and that the debate on the "criterion for truth" was of great significance. It called on the people to free their thinking, be practical, innovative and realistic, and work together for the reconstruction of the country. The slogan "The class struggle is the key link," which we used to guide our work during the "cultural revolution," was thoroughly repudiated. A historic decision was adopted at the Session to make economic development the central task of the Party and the government and to adopt reform and opening up.


党的十一届三中全会标志着我们党重新确立了马克思主义的思想路线、政治路线、组织路线,标志着中国共产党人在新的时代条件下的伟大觉醒,显示了我们党顺应时代潮流和人民愿望、勇敢开辟建设社会主义新路的坚强决心。在党的十一届三中全会春风吹拂下,神州大地万物复苏、生机勃发,拨乱反正全面展开,解决历史遗留问题有步骤进行,社会主义民主法制建设走上正轨,党和国家领导制度和领导体制得到健全,国家各项事业蓬勃发展。我们伟大的祖国迎来了思想的解放、经济的发展、政治的昌明、教育的勃兴、文艺的繁荣、科学的春天。党和国家又充满希望、充满活力地踏上了实现社会主义现代化的伟大征程。


For the Chinese Communist Party, the Third Plenary Session marked a reawakening under changed circumstances and demonstrated the Party's determination to create a new contemporary socialism in line with the people's aspirations. The session reinvigorated the whole country. All-round efforts were made to correct the wrong policies; past problems were resolved one by one; a socialist democracy and legal system were being built; the system and institutions of the Party and government in governing the country were improved; and progress was made in all fields. Throughout our great motherland, people's minds were set free, the economy began to grow, democracy was advocated, and education, arts and culture, and science developed. The Party and the nation were again full of hope and vigor on the great march to socialist modernization.


新时期最鲜明的特点是改革开放,党带领人民进行改革开放,目的就是要解放和发展社会生产力,实现国家现代化,让中国人民富裕起来,振兴伟大的中华民族;就是要推动我国社会主义制度自我完善和发展,赋予社会主义新的生机活力,建设和发展有中国特色社会主义;就是要在引领当代中国发展进步中加强和改进党的建设,保持和发展党的先进性,确保党始终走在时代前列。


Reform and opening up is the essential feature of the new era. The purpose of reform and opening up is to liberate and develop productive forces and modernize the country, which will enable the Chinese people to live better lives and rejuvenate our great Chinese nation. It is to improve and develop our socialist system, instill vitality into socialism and build Chinese-style socialism. It is to improve and strengthen the Party as it leads contemporary China in development and to preserve the advanced nature of the Party to ensure that the Party will always march at the forefront.


30年来,以邓小平同志为核心的党的第二代中央领导集体、以江泽民同志为核心的党的第三代中央领导集体和党的十六大以来的中央领导集体,团结带领全党全国各族人民,承前启后,继往开来,竭力推进改革开放伟大事业,谱写了中华民族自强不息、顽强奋进新的壮丽史诗。我们党先后召开6次全国代表大会、45次中央全会,及时研究新情况、解决新问题、总结新经验,集中全党全国各族人民智慧,形成了党的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验,制定和作出了指导改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的一整套方针政策和工作部署,成功开辟了中国特色社会主义道路。


In the past 30 years, the second generation of Party leadership with Comrade Deng Xiaoping at its core, the third generation of Party leadership with Comrade Jiang Zemin at its core, and the Party leadership since the 16th National Congress have led the whole Party and the whole nation of all ethnicities in making great efforts to push forward reform and opening up, showing their spirit of hard work and strong determination. During this period, six national Party congresses and 45 plenary sessions of the central committees were held to resolve new problems and sum up new experiences given the changing situations. By pooling the wisdom of the whole Party and all ethnic groups, we managed to establish the basic theory, line, program and experience, draw up and adopt a series of policies and principles as well as specific plans to guide the reform and opening up and socialist modernization. Thus, the road to socialism with Chinese characteristics was clearly charted.


今天,13亿中国人民大踏步赶上了时代潮流,稳定走上了奔向富裕安康的广阔道路,中国特色社会主义充满蓬勃生机,为人类文明进步作出重大贡献的中华民族以前所未有的雄姿巍然屹立在世界东方。


Today, the 1.3 billion Chinese people have caught up with the times. They are firmly on the path to prosperity. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is full of vigor and vitality. The Chinese nation, which has made important contributions to the progress of human civilization, is now standing firm in the East.


30年来,我们始终以改革开放为强大动力,在新中国成立以后取得成就的基础上,推动党和国家各项事业取得举世瞩目的新的伟大成就。


In the past 30 years, building on the achievements made since New China was born, we have made remarkable achievements in all our endeavors. Reform and opening up has been our driving force.


我们锐意推进各方面体制改革,使我国成功实现了从高度集中的计划经济体制到充满活力的社会主义市场经济体制的伟大历史转折。我们建立和完善社会主义市场经济体制,建立以家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的农村双层经营体制,形成公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,形成按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度,形成在国家宏观调控下市场对资源配置发挥基础性作用的经济管理制度。在不断深化经济体制改革的同时,不断深化政治体制、文化体制、社会体制以及其他各方面体制改革,不断形成和发展符合当代中国国情、充满生机活力的新的体制机制,为我国经济繁荣发展、社会和谐稳定提供了有力制度保障。


With institutional reform in various sectors, we were able to turn a highly concentrated planned economy into a vigorous socialist market economy. To set up and improve the socialist market economic system, we have installed a two-tier management system that is based on the household contracting system and features an integration of unified management with separate management. A basic economic system was established, with public ownership as the pillar and all forms of ownership developing together. A distribution system was installed mainly on the principle of distribution according to work, while allowing other modes of distribution. An economic management system has taken shape, enabling the market to play the basic role in resource allocation under the macro-regulation of the government. Along with deepening reform of the economic system, we have reformed political, cultural and social institutions, creating flourishing entities to suit China's actual circumstances.


我们不断扩大对外开放,使我国成功实现了从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的伟大历史转折。我们坚持对外开放的基本国策,打开国门搞建设,加快发展开放型经济。从建立经济特区到开放沿海、沿江、沿边、内陆地区再到加入世界贸易组织,从大规模“引进来”到大踏步“走出去”,利用国际国内两个市场、两种资源,水平显著提高,国际竞争力不断增强。从1978年到2007年,我国进出口总额从206亿美元提高到21737亿美元,跃居世界第三,外汇储备跃居世界第一,对外投资大幅增长,实际使用外资额累计近10000亿美元。广泛深入的国际合作加快了我国经济发展,也为世界经济发展作出了重大贡献。


By opening our door wider, we have turned a closed or semi-closed society into a completely open one. This is a historic change. We have persisted in the basic policy of opening up to the outside world in our economic development and stepped up the growth of an open economy. Special economic zones have been established, followed by the opening of the coastal areas, areas along big rivers, the border regions and the hinterland, and finally, accession to the WTO. From "introducing foreign capital and technology into China" to "going global," we were able to avail ourselves of both domestic and international markets and both Chinese and foreign resources. This has helped strengthen China's international competitiveness. During the period from 1978 to 2007, the total import and export of China increased from $20.6 to $2.17 trillion, ranking the third in the world and becoming the No.1 country in terms of foreign reserves. The paid-up overseas investment amounted to nearly $1 trillion. International cooperation speeded up China's economic development while contributing a lot to the world economy.


我们坚持以经济建设为中心,我国综合国力迈上新台阶。从1978年到2007年,我国国内生产总值由3645亿元增长到24.95万亿元,年均实际增长9.8%,是同期世界经济年均增长率的3倍多,我国经济总量上升为世界第四。我们依靠自己力量稳定解决了13亿人口吃饭问题。我国主要农产品和工业品产量已居世界第一,具有世界先进水平的重大科技创新成果不断涌现,高新技术产业蓬勃发展,水利、能源、交通、通信等基础设施建设取得突破性进展,生态文明建设不断推进,城乡面貌焕然一新。


As we concentrated our efforts on economic development, our national capacity has improved significantly. Our GDP rose from 364.5 billion yuan in 1978 to 24.95 trillion yuan in 2007, the average annual growth rate being 9.8 percent, more than three times the world average during the same period. China's economy now ranks fourth in the world in terms of GDP. By relying on our own efforts, we have been able to provide adequate food to a population of 1.3 billion. Our main agricultural and industrial output now ranks first in the world. Major world-class scientific and technological innovations continue to emerge. The high and new technological industries are developing vigorously. Rapid progress has been made in the construction of infrastructure including water conservancy, energy, transportation and telecommunication. The ecological environment keeps improving. Both the city and the countryside have taken on a new look.


我们着力保障和改善民生,人民生活总体上达到小康水平。这30年是我国城乡居民收入增长最快、得到实惠最多的时期。从1978年到2007年,全国城镇居民人均可支配收入从343元增加到13786元,实际增长6.5倍;农民人均纯收入从134元增加到4140元,实际增长6.3倍;农村贫困人口从2.5亿减少到1400多万。城市人均住宅建筑面积和农村人均住房面积成倍增加。群众家庭财产普遍增多,吃穿住行用水平明显提高。改革开放前长期困扰我们的短缺经济状况已经从根本上得到改变。


We have paid great attention to improving people's lives. On the whole, our people now live moderately prosperous lives. The past 30 years saw the fastest increase in the income of people both in the cities and the countryside. The people have benefited a great deal from the reform and opening up policy. The average annual disposable income of city and town residents rose from 343 yuan in 1978 to 13,786 yuan in 2007, an increase of 6.5 times. The average annual income of farmers rose from 134 yuan in 1978 to 4,140 yuan in 2007, an increase of 6.3 times. The poor population in rural areas went down from 250 million in 1978 to 14 million in 2007. The average per-capita living space for both city residents and farmers has multiplied. People are richer, have better food and clothes, live in larger homes and enjoy better transportation services. The economy of shortage that had plagued us for a long time before reform and opening up has been fundamentally changed.


我们大力发展社会主义民主政治,人民当家作主的权利得到更好保障。政治体制改革不断深化,人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度以及基层群众自治制度日益完善,中国特色社会主义法律体系基本形成,依法治国基本方略有效实施,社会主义法治国家建设取得重要进展,公民有序政治参与不断扩大,人权事业全面发展。爱国统一战线发展壮大,政党关系、民族关系、宗教关系、阶层关系、海内外同胞关系更加和谐。


Our people's right to run the country is better protected as we are promoting socialist democracy. Political reform is deepening. The system of people's congresses, the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, the system of regional autonomy for ethnic minorities and the system of grass-root self-governance have all continued to improve. A legal system with Chinese characteristics is taking shape. The rule of law is being effectively practiced. Major progress has been made in building a socialist legal system. Citizens' participation in politics is expanding. Human rights are being improved in all aspects. The Patriotic United Front is expanding. There is greater harmony among different political parties, ethnic groups, religions, social strata and between Chinese on the mainland and overseas.


我们大力发展社会主义先进文化,人民日益增长的精神文化需求得到更好满足。社会主义核心价值体系建设取得重大进展,马克思主义思想理论建设卓有成效,群众性精神文明创建活动、公民道德建设、青少年思想道德建设全面推进,文化事业生机盎然,文化产业空前繁荣,国家文化软实力不断增强,人们精神世界日益丰富,全民族文明素质明显提高,中华民族的凝聚力和向心力显著增强。


We have paid great attention to developing an advanced socialist culture in order to meet growing public demand. We have made significant progress in constructing a socialist core value system, and achieved success in building Marxist ideological theory. We have instituted campaigns for advanced spiritual civilization and public morality, and boosted efforts to provide moral and ethical education for young people. The cultural sector has been developing vigorously and the cultural industry is experiencing unprecedented prosperity. China's soft power is growing and the Chinese people are becoming better educated. The cohesiveness of the Chinese nation is strengthening conspicuously.


我们大力发展社会事业,社会和谐稳定得到巩固和发展。城乡免费九年义务教育全面实现,高等教育总规模、大中小学在校生数量位居世界第一,办学质量不断提高。就业规模持续扩大,全社会创业活力明显增强。社会保障制度建设加快推进,覆盖城乡居民的社会保障体系初步形成。公共卫生服务体系和基本医疗服务体系不断健全,新型农村合作医疗制度覆盖全国。社会管理不断改进,社会大局保持稳定。


We have paid great attention to developing public welfare, and succeeded in developing and consolidating social harmony and stability. Free and compulsory nine-year education in urban and rural areas has been realized. The general scale of higher education and total enrolment in middle and elementary schools rank first in the world, while the quality of educational institutions is steadily improving. The scale of employment is gradually expanding and the vigor of job creation in the whole society is conspicuously gaining strength. The building of a social security system is accelerating, thus a social security umbrella covering every urban and rural citizen is gradually taking shape. The public healthcare system and basic medical service system are being improved and a reformed cooperative healthcare system in rural areas has expanded to reach nearly every part of the country. Social management is gradually improving and thus social stability is well maintained.


我们坚持党对军队绝对领导,国防和军队建设取得重大成就。军队革命化、现代化、正规化建设全面加强,新时期军事战略方针扎实贯彻,中国特色军事变革加速推进,中国特色精兵之路成功开辟,裁减军队员额任务顺利完成,军队武器装备建设成效显著。军队、武警部队停止一切经商活动。军政军民团结不断巩固。人民军队履行新世纪新阶段历史使命能力全面增强,在保卫祖国、建设祖国特别是抗击各种自然灾害中发挥了重要作用。


While the absolute leadership of the Party over military forces remains unchanged, China's national defense force and military development have seen substantial progress. Modernization and standardization of the armed forces have comprehensively been progressing. The military strategy and policies set for the new era have been implemented step by step and the building a modern armed forces with Chinese characteristics is well under way. We have made the necessary cuts in the numbers of military personnel, while weaponry has been greatly improved. All military and armed police units have ceased from doing business operation to gain financial help. The relationship of the armed forces with the government and with the public is in good condition. Therefore, the capability of the People's Liberation Army to fulfill its historical task has been strengthened comprehensively, and it has been playing an important role in national defense, economic construction and rescue work in natural disasters.


我们成功实施“一国两制”基本方针,祖国和平统一大业迈出重大步伐。香港、澳门回归祖国,“一国两制”、“港人治港”、“澳人治澳”、高度自治的方针得到全面贯彻执行,香港特别行政区、澳门特别行政区保持繁荣稳定。祖国大陆同台湾的经济文化交流和人员往来不断加强,两岸政党交流成功开启,两岸全面直接双向“三通”迈出历史性步伐,反对“台独”分裂活动斗争取得重要成果,两岸关系和平发展呈现新的前景。


The basic policy of "one country, two systems" has been implemented successfully, a significant step toward China's peaceful unification. Hong Kong and Macao returned to the motherland and principles such as "one country, two systems," "Hong Kong people governing Hong Kong," "Macao people governing Macao" and a high degree of autonomy have been carried out comprehensively. The Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions have maintained stability and prosperity. As for the cross-Straits relations between China's mainland and Taiwan, recent years have seen increasingly frequent exchanges in economy, culture and personnel. Exchanges between parties on both sides have been successfully launched. Direct air, shipping and postal links between China's mainland and Taiwan have been established in a historic breakthrough. Remarkable achievements have been made in the battle against the "Taiwan independence" movement. Prospects for the future of cross-Straits relations are bright.


我们坚持奉行独立自主的和平外交政策,全方位外交取得重大成就。我们恪守维护世界和平、促进共同发展的外交政策宗旨,同发达国家关系全面发展,同周边国家睦邻友好不断深化,同发展中国家传统友谊更加巩固。我国积极参与多边事务,承担相应国际义务。我国国际地位和国际影响显著上升,在国际事务中发挥了重要建设性作用。


We unswervingly pursue an independent foreign policy of peace. Significant achievements have been made in multi-directional diplomacy. We have upheld the diplomatic principle of maintaining world peace and promoting common development, thus developing an all-round relationship with the developed countries, enhancing cordial relationships with bordering countries and consolidating traditional friendships with developing countries. China has actively participated in multilateral diplomacy, while taking on corresponding international duties. China's international status is rising and its influence is increasing, thus giving China a more constructive role in international affairs.


我们坚持党要管党、从严治党,党的领导水平和执政水平、拒腐防变和抵御风险能力明显提高。党的建设新的伟大工程全面推进,执政能力建设和先进性建设深入进行,思想理论建设成效显著,党内民主不断扩大,党内生活准则和制度不断健全,党的各级组织不断加强,干部队伍和人才队伍朝气蓬勃,党的作风建设全面加强,党内法规更加完善,反腐倡廉建设深入推进,党领导改革开放和社会主义现代化建设能力显著提高,党在中国特色社会主义事业中的领导核心作用不断增强。


We have upheld the principles of the Party managing the Party and imposing strict discipline, and achieved a noticeably improvement in standards of Party leadership and governance and in its ability to resist corruption and malpractice. The great engineering of party building has progressed in all dimensions. The campaign to strengthen the Party's governing capacity and to educate Party members in preserving their vanguard nature has been progressing smoothly. Conspicuous achievement has been made in the Party's theory study. Intra-Party democracy has been strengthened. The internal rules and regulations of the Party have been improved. Party organizations at various levels have been enhanced, featuring a vigorous legion of Party members. Because of its continuous devotion to improving the Party's ethical standards, rules and regulations and the fight against corruption, the governing capacity of the Party in leading the reform and opening-up movement and pursuing socialist modernization has greatly increased. The Party's leading role in building socialism with Chinese characteristics has been sustained and strengthened.

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