来源:网络|2010年11月28日 15:11





On this day 30 years ago, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) was convened. This meeting ushered in a historic period of reform and opening up. A meeting of great significance, it marked a turning point in the Party's history since the founding of New China in 1949. At that historic moment, Chinese people of all ethnic groups started a great new revolution under the leadership of the CPC.


As we gather here today to mark the 30th anniversary of the Third Plenary Session, we must fully recognize the great significance and achievements of reform and opening up, review the course we have traversed and sum up our experience over the past 30 years. We must stick to the spirit of that meeting, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and put into practice the Scientific Outlook on Development under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thinking of the "Three Represents." We shall make greater strides in reform and opening up as we march on the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.


The Third Plenary Session was convened at an important historical juncture when the Party and our country were at a crossroads. After the overthrow of the Gang of Four, there was strong public demand that the mistakes of the Cultural Revolution be corrected, and the serious situation created by 10 years of chaos reversed. Our Party and nation would thus emerge from a difficult period. However, this understandable wish met with strong obstacles, and there was hesitation over the future work of the Party and the nation. At the same time, the world economy was developing rapidly. Science and technology were making progress every day. Within China, there was an urgent need for reconstruction. On the ideological front, a heated debate on the "criterion for truth" was going on throughout the country. Therefore, it was the internal and external situation that demands that the Party and the nation had to make political decisions and the strategic choice vital to the fate of the Party as well as the nation.


Led by Comrade Deng Xiaoping and supported by other veteran revolutionaries, the Third Plenary Session began correcting "Leftist" mistakes of all forms committed before and during the "cultural revolution," firmly repudiated the fallacy of the "two whatevers" (i.e. Whatever has been said and done by Mao Zedong is right and whatever has been stipulated by him must not be changed). The Session affirmed that the scientific system of Mao Zedong Thought must be correctly understood in its full context and that the debate on the "criterion for truth" was of great significance. It called on the people to free their thinking, be practical, innovative and realistic, and work together for the reconstruction of the country. The slogan "The class struggle is the key link," which we used to guide our work during the "cultural revolution," was thoroughly repudiated. A historic decision was adopted at the Session to make economic development the central task of the Party and the government and to adopt reform and opening up.


For the Chinese Communist Party, the Third Plenary Session marked a reawakening under changed circumstances and demonstrated the Party's determination to create a new contemporary socialism in line with the people's aspirations. The session reinvigorated the whole country. All-round efforts were made to correct the wrong policies; past problems were resolved one by one; a socialist democracy and legal system were being built; the system and institutions of the Party and government in governing the country were improved; and progress was made in all fields. Throughout our great motherland, people's minds were set free, the economy began to grow, democracy was advocated, and education, arts and culture, and science developed. The Party and the nation were again full of hope and vigor on the great march to socialist modernization.


Reform and opening up is the essential feature of the new era. The purpose of reform and opening up is to liberate and develop productive forces and modernize the country, which will enable the Chinese people to live better lives and rejuvenate our great Chinese nation. It is to improve and develop our socialist system, instill vitality into socialism and build Chinese-style socialism. It is to improve and strengthen the Party as it leads contemporary China in development and to preserve the advanced nature of the Party to ensure that the Party will always march at the forefront.


In the past 30 years, the second generation of Party leadership with Comrade Deng Xiaoping at its core, the third generation of Party leadership with Comrade Jiang Zemin at its core, and the Party leadership since the 16th National Congress have led the whole Party and the whole nation of all ethnicities in making great efforts to push forward reform and opening up, showing their spirit of hard work and strong determination. During this period, six national Party congresses and 45 plenary sessions of the central committees were held to resolve new problems and sum up new experiences given the changing situations. By pooling the wisdom of the whole Party and all ethnic groups, we managed to establish the basic theory, line, program and experience, draw up and adopt a series of policies and principles as well as specific plans to guide the reform and opening up and socialist modernization. Thus, the road to socialism with Chinese characteristics was clearly charted.


Today, the 1.3 billion Chinese people have caught up with the times. They are firmly on the path to prosperity. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is full of vigor and vitality. The Chinese nation, which has made important contributions to the progress of human civilization, is now standing firm in the East.


In the past 30 years, building on the achievements made since New China was born, we have made remarkable achievements in all our endeavors. Reform and opening up has been our driving force.


With institutional reform in various sectors, we were able to turn a highly concentrated planned economy into a vigorous socialist market economy. To set up and improve the socialist market economic system, we have installed a two-tier management system that is based on the household contracting system and features an integration of unified management with separate management. A basic economic system was established, with public ownership as the pillar and all forms of ownership developing together. A distribution system was installed mainly on the principle of distribution according to work, while allowing other modes of distribution. An economic management system has taken shape, enabling the market to play the basic role in resource allocation under the macro-regulation of the government. Along with deepening reform of the economic system, we have reformed political, cultural and social institutions, creating flourishing entities to suit China's actual circumstances.


By opening our door wider, we have turned a closed or semi-closed society into a completely open one. This is a historic change. We have persisted in the basic policy of opening up to the outside world in our economic development and stepped up the growth of an open economy. Special economic zones have been established, followed by the opening of the coastal areas, areas along big rivers, the border regions and the hinterland, and finally, accession to the WTO. From "introducing foreign capital and technology into China" to "going global," we were able to avail ourselves of both domestic and international markets and both Chinese and foreign resources. This has helped strengthen China's international competitiveness. During the period from 1978 to 2007, the total import and export of China increased from $20.6 to $2.17 trillion, ranking the third in the world and becoming the No.1 country in terms of foreign reserves. The paid-up overseas investment amounted to nearly $1 trillion. International cooperation speeded up China's economic development while contributing a lot to the world economy.


As we concentrated our efforts on economic development, our national capacity has improved significantly. Our GDP rose from 364.5 billion yuan in 1978 to 24.95 trillion yuan in 2007, the average annual growth rate being 9.8 percent, more than three times the world average during the same period. China's economy now ranks fourth in the world in terms of GDP. By relying on our own efforts, we have been able to provide adequate food to a population of 1.3 billion. Our main agricultural and industrial output now ranks first in the world. Major world-class scientific and technological innovations continue to emerge. The high and new technological industries are developing vigorously. Rapid progress has been made in the construction of infrastructure including water conservancy, energy, transportation and telecommunication. The ecological environment keeps improving. Both the city and the countryside have taken on a new look.


We have paid great attention to improving people's lives. On the whole, our people now live moderately prosperous lives. The past 30 years saw the fastest increase in the income of people both in the cities and the countryside. The people have benefited a great deal from the reform and opening up policy. The average annual disposable income of city and town residents rose from 343 yuan in 1978 to 13,786 yuan in 2007, an increase of 6.5 times. The average annual income of farmers rose from 134 yuan in 1978 to 4,140 yuan in 2007, an increase of 6.3 times. The poor population in rural areas went down from 250 million in 1978 to 14 million in 2007. The average per-capita living space for both city residents and farmers has multiplied. People are richer, have better food and clothes, live in larger homes and enjoy better transportation services. The economy of shortage that had plagued us for a long time before reform and opening up has been fundamentally changed.


Our people's right to run the country is better protected as we are promoting socialist democracy. Political reform is deepening. The system of people's congresses, the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, the system of regional autonomy for ethnic minorities and the system of grass-root self-governance have all continued to improve. A legal system with Chinese characteristics is taking shape. The rule of law is being effectively practiced. Major progress has been made in building a socialist legal system. Citizens' participation in politics is expanding. Human rights are being improved in all aspects. The Patriotic United Front is expanding. There is greater harmony among different political parties, ethnic groups, religions, social strata and between Chinese on the mainland and overseas.


We have paid great attention to developing an advanced socialist culture in order to meet growing public demand. We have made significant progress in constructing a socialist core value system, and achieved success in building Marxist ideological theory. We have instituted campaigns for advanced spiritual civilization and public morality, and boosted efforts to provide moral and ethical education for young people. The cultural sector has been developing vigorously and the cultural industry is experiencing unprecedented prosperity. China's soft power is growing and the Chinese people are becoming better educated. The cohesiveness of the Chinese nation is strengthening conspicuously.


We have paid great attention to developing public welfare, and succeeded in developing and consolidating social harmony and stability. Free and compulsory nine-year education in urban and rural areas has been realized. The general scale of higher education and total enrolment in middle and elementary schools rank first in the world, while the quality of educational institutions is steadily improving. The scale of employment is gradually expanding and the vigor of job creation in the whole society is conspicuously gaining strength. The building of a social security system is accelerating, thus a social security umbrella covering every urban and rural citizen is gradually taking shape. The public healthcare system and basic medical service system are being improved and a reformed cooperative healthcare system in rural areas has expanded to reach nearly every part of the country. Social management is gradually improving and thus social stability is well maintained.


While the absolute leadership of the Party over military forces remains unchanged, China's national defense force and military development have seen substantial progress. Modernization and standardization of the armed forces have comprehensively been progressing. The military strategy and policies set for the new era have been implemented step by step and the building a modern armed forces with Chinese characteristics is well under way. We have made the necessary cuts in the numbers of military personnel, while weaponry has been greatly improved. All military and armed police units have ceased from doing business operation to gain financial help. The relationship of the armed forces with the government and with the public is in good condition. Therefore, the capability of the People's Liberation Army to fulfill its historical task has been strengthened comprehensively, and it has been playing an important role in national defense, economic construction and rescue work in natural disasters.


The basic policy of "one country, two systems" has been implemented successfully, a significant step toward China's peaceful unification. Hong Kong and Macao returned to the motherland and principles such as "one country, two systems," "Hong Kong people governing Hong Kong," "Macao people governing Macao" and a high degree of autonomy have been carried out comprehensively. The Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions have maintained stability and prosperity. As for the cross-Straits relations between China's mainland and Taiwan, recent years have seen increasingly frequent exchanges in economy, culture and personnel. Exchanges between parties on both sides have been successfully launched. Direct air, shipping and postal links between China's mainland and Taiwan have been established in a historic breakthrough. Remarkable achievements have been made in the battle against the "Taiwan independence" movement. Prospects for the future of cross-Straits relations are bright.


We unswervingly pursue an independent foreign policy of peace. Significant achievements have been made in multi-directional diplomacy. We have upheld the diplomatic principle of maintaining world peace and promoting common development, thus developing an all-round relationship with the developed countries, enhancing cordial relationships with bordering countries and consolidating traditional friendships with developing countries. China has actively participated in multilateral diplomacy, while taking on corresponding international duties. China's international status is rising and its influence is increasing, thus giving China a more constructive role in international affairs.


We have upheld the principles of the Party managing the Party and imposing strict discipline, and achieved a noticeably improvement in standards of Party leadership and governance and in its ability to resist corruption and malpractice. The great engineering of party building has progressed in all dimensions. The campaign to strengthen the Party's governing capacity and to educate Party members in preserving their vanguard nature has been progressing smoothly. Conspicuous achievement has been made in the Party's theory study. Intra-Party democracy has been strengthened. The internal rules and regulations of the Party have been improved. Party organizations at various levels have been enhanced, featuring a vigorous legion of Party members. Because of its continuous devotion to improving the Party's ethical standards, rules and regulations and the fight against corruption, the governing capacity of the Party in leading the reform and opening-up movement and pursuing socialist modernization has greatly increased. The Party's leading role in building socialism with Chinese characteristics has been sustained and strengthened.

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