When Samantha Deffler was young, her mother would often call her by her siblings' names — even the dog's name. "Rebecca, Jesse, Molly, Tucker, Samantha," she says.
A lot of people ___1（搞混）___ children's names or friends' names, but Deffler is a cognitive scientist at Rollins College, in Winter Park, Fla., and she wanted to find out why it happens. So she did a survey of 1,700 men and women of different ages, and she found that naming mistakes are very common. Most everyone sometimes ___1___ the names of family and friends. Her findings were published in the journal Memory & Cognition.
"It's a normal cognitive ___2（小故障，小差错）___," Deffler says.
It's not related to a bad memory or to aging, but rather to how the brain ___3（归类）___ names. It's like having special folders for family names and friends names stored in the brain. When people used the wrong name, overwhelmingly the name that was used was in the same category, Deffler says. It was in the same folder.