You already know that regular exercise is important for controlling weight and avoiding a variety of health conditions. But it can also improve your academic performance. As a distance learning student, you may miss out on some of the opportunities for physical activity afforded to more traditional students who routinely walk around campus. But it’s well worth the effort to schedule exercise into your daily regimen.
你已经知道,定期锻炼对于控制体重以及避免一系列健康问题是很重要的。但是,定期锻炼也有改善学习的作用。作为一名接受远程教育的学生,你可能会错过一些参加实践活动的机会,而这些活动对于那些案例走读的学生们来说则是家常便饭。但是,将锻炼安排进你的日常生活是非常值得的。

Regular exercisers have higher GPAs and graduation rates
定期锻炼的人拥有更搞得平均分和毕业率

Jim Fitzsimmons, Ed.D, director of Campus Recreation and Wellnessat the University of Nevada, Reno, tells About.com, “What we know is students who exercise regularly – at least 3 times a week – at an intensity of eight times resting (7.9 METS) graduate at higher rates, and earn on average a full GPA point higher than their counterparts who do not exercise.”
吉姆·菲茨西蒙斯,教育博士,内华达大学里诺校区娱乐健康部主任,告诉about网站说:”我们知道,定期运动的学生,每周至少三次,以八分的代谢当量(7.9 METS)占有更高的比率,并且比起不锻炼的学生,他们拥有更高的平均分。”

The study, published in the Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports & Medicine, defines physical activity as at least 20 minutes of vigorous movement (at least 3 days a week) that produces sweat and heavy breathing, or moderate movement for at least 30 minutes that doesn’t produce sweat and heavy breathing (at least 5 days a week).
该研究发表在医学和运动医学科学杂志上,并将体育活动定义为至少二十分钟的剧烈运动(每周至少三次),运动者会出汗、喘息,或者是至少30分钟的适度运动,不会出汗、喘息。(每周至少五次)

Think you don’t have time to exercise? Mike McKenzie, PhD, chair of Exercise Physiology Sports Medicine at Winston-Salem State University, and president elect of the Southeast American College of Sports Medicine, tells About.com, “A group led by Dr. Jennifer Flynn investigated this during her time at Saginaw Valley State and found that students who studied over three hours per day were 3.5 times more likely to be exercisers.”
要是没时间锻炼怎么办?麦克·麦肯齐,博士,温斯顿-塞勒姆周大学运动生理学和运动医学的主席,美国东南大学运动医学的选理事长,告诉about网站:“詹妮弗·弗林博士在萨吉诺古州立大学期间,曾率领团队对此进行了研究,发现每天学习超过三个小时的学生有3.5倍的概率是运动者。”

And McKenzie says, “Students with a GPA above 3.5 were 3.2 times more likely to be regular exercisers than those with GPAs under 3.0.”
麦肯齐说:“比起平均分在3分以下的学生,平均分在3.2分以上的学生有3.2倍的概率是定期运动的人。”

Over a decade ago, McKenzie said researchers discovered a link between exercise, concentration, and focus in children. “A group at Oregon State led by Dr. Stewart Trost found significantly improved concentration, memory, and behavior in school-aged children compared to kids who had additional lesson time.” 
十多年前,麦肯齐说过,研究者发现,在儿童中,运动、注意力和焦点存在联系。“由斯图尔特·特罗斯特在俄勒冈州领导的团队发现,比起拥有附加的学习实践的孩子,学龄儿童中在注意力、记忆和行为上有显著的改善。”

More recently, a study by Johnson & Johnson Health and Wellness Solutionsreveals that even short “microbursts” of physical activity throughout the day can have positive effects. Jennifer Turgiss, DrPH, vice president of Behavioral Science and Analytics at Johnson & Johnson Health and Wellness Solutions, tells About.com sitting for long periods of time – which college students are prone to do – can have a negative health effect.
最近,强生卫生健康解决方案的研究表明,体育锻炼中的一些短的微爆发也具有积极的效果。詹妮弗·忒堤斯,公共卫生硕士,强生卫生健康解决方案行为科学分析副主席,告诉about网站,大学生倾向于久坐,这对健康有负面的影响。

“However, our study found that five-minute bouts of walking every hour had a positive impact on mood, fatigue and hunger at the end of a day,” Turgiss says. “
但是,我们的研究发现每一小时来回走五分钟对于一天下来的情绪、疲劳和饥饿感有良好的效果。” 忒堤斯说道。

This may be particularly beneficial to distance learners who also work a full-time job and study in the evening and nighttime hours. “Having more mental and physical energy at the end of a day that requires a lot of sitting, such as a student’s day, can leave them with more personal resources to do other activities,” Turgiss concludes.
这对于全职工作,只在晚上才有时间学习的远程学习者尤其有益。“在一天要结束的时候,需要坐着休息,例如学生,在生理和心理上有更多的精力可以让他们有更多的个人资源做一些其他的活动。” 忒堤斯总结道。

So how does exercise improve academic performance?
所以,锻炼是怎么对学习有促进作用的呢?

In his book, “Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain, John Ratey, a Harvard professor of psychiatry, writes, “Exercise stimulates our gray matter to produce Miracle-Gro for the brain.” A study by researchers at the University of Illinois found that physical activity increased the ability of elementary school students to pay attention, and also increased their academic performance.
约翰瑞迪,哈佛精神病学教授,在他的《火花:革命性的运动新科学和大脑》艺术中写道:“运动能够刺激我们的头脑,产生美乐棵。”伊利诺伊州大学的研究者通过研究发现,体育锻炼能够增强小学生的注意力,对他们的学习也有提高作用。

Exercise lowers stress and anxiety, while increasing focus. “Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) which plays a role in memory is significantly elevated after an intense bout of exercise,” according to Fitzgerald. “This is a fairly deep subject with both physiologic and psychological factors at play,” he explains.
运动能够减轻压力和焦虑,同时也能帮助集中注意力,“脑源性神经营养因子在记忆中起重要作用,在频繁地锻炼之后会得到显著提升。”菲茨杰拉德说,他接着解释道,“这对于生理学和心理因素来说是一项深远的工程。”

In addition to affecting a student’s cognitive skills, exercise improves academic performance in other ways. Dr. Niket Sonpal, assistant professor at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, tells About.com that exercise causes three human physiology and behavior changes.
除了影响学生的认知能力,锻炼也可以在其他方面促进学习。尼克特·索拉尔,杜鲁大学骨科医学副教授,告诉about网站,运动可使人类在生理和行为上产生三个变化。

1. Exercise requires time management.
锻炼需要时间管理

Sonpal believes that students who don’t schedule a time to exercise tend to be unstructured and also don’t schedule time to study. “That is why gym class in high school was so important; it was practice for the real world,” Sonpal says. “Scheduling personal workout time forces college students to also schedule study time and this teaches them the importance of block timing, and prioritization of their studies.”
索拉尔相信,不定期运动的学生趋向于松散,也就不会在学习上好好安排时间。“这就是为什么高中的体育课重要的原因,它是对现实世界的实践。”

2. Exercise combats stress.
锻炼减缓压力

Several studies have proven the link between exercise and stress. “Vigorous exercise a few times a week reduces your stress levels, and likely cortisol the stress hormone,” Sonpal says. He explains that these reductions are vitally important to college students. “Stress hormones inhibit memory production and your ability to sleep: two key things needed to score high on exams.”
一些研究证明,运动和压力之间存在联系。“每周几次激烈的运动可以减轻你的压力,将压力激素转化为皮质醇,” 索拉尔说道。他解释说压力的减少对于大学生来说十分重要。“压力激素阻碍了记忆储存和睡眠能力:这两者是帮助你考试取得高分的关键因素。”

3. Exercise induces better sleep.
锻炼促进睡眠

Cardiovascular exercise leads to a better quality of sleep. “Better sleep means moving your studies from short term to long term memory during REM,” Sonpal says. “That way, on test day you remember that teeny tiny fact that gets you those scores you need.”
有氧运动有助于睡眠。“更好的睡眠意味着可以通过REM睡眠,将你在学习时的短期记忆转变为长期记忆。”索拉尔说道。“”那样的话,考试那天你就可以记住细小的知识点,从而获取理想的分数。”

As a distance learner, it’s tempting to think you’re so busy that you can’t afford to exercise. However, the exact opposite is true: you can’t afford not to exercise. Even in you can't commit to 30 minute intervals, 5 or 10 minutes spurts during the course of the day could make a significant difference in your academic performance.
作为远程学习者,你可能会很忙,从而不能锻炼。但是,反过来说也是正确的:你不能不锻炼。即使你连三十分钟的时间都没有,每天上课中间的5或10分钟的间隙的锻炼也对于你的学习有所帮助。

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