maya tsolkin

大家还记得新概念英语第三册Lesson38中雕刻在墙壁上、骨头上、古代长毛象的象牙上令历史学家们无比着迷的符号吗?古玛雅人有着世界上最完美的历法体系,体系中的一种叫卓尔金历(Tzolk'in)。它是以20个日名(20个名称序列)以及13个日数(13个数字)所构成的周期组成了260个独立的日子(就像中国的天干地支不断搭配组合),被用来决定宗教及祭典项目的时间,并做占卜用。每个日期皆依序标上从1到13的日数,接着又从1重新开始算起。此外,每个日期还依序标上了20个日名。

玛雅人认为每个卓尔金日都有其所影响事物的象征,他们有个称为日期保管者(day keeper)的萨满祭司,借由研读卓尔金历预测未来。据说玛雅人是根据卓尔金历推算出的世界末日。今天的新概念文化大爆炸节目就带大家了解一下玛雅卓尔金历中的20个日名~~

新概念文化大爆炸系列汇总>>>

ahau

1. Ahau, or Ajpu in Kiche Maya, is the sacred day sign of the Sun. It represents mental and psychological tests and challenges, struggle, leadership and heroism. It also embodies the energy and strength of completion. Ahau's animal totems are the eagle and the human being.
Ahau日(或基切语中的Ajpu日)是表示太阳的日名。它代表精神和心理的考验、挑战、斗争、领导和英勇,同样也象征能量和实现的力量。Ahau日的动物图腾是老鹰和人类。

【注:基切语(K'iche')是一种玛雅语族语言。】

akbal

2. Akbal, or Aq'ab'al in Kiche Maya, is the day sign of Night. It is the sign of clarity or light, and symbolizes both dawn and darkness. This is a day particularly propitious for love and marriage, and for the ability to think and act with perfect clarity. Akbal's animal totems are the fawn and the macaw.
Akbal日(或者基切语中的Aq'ab'al日)是夜晚的日名,代表清晰或光明,能同时象征象征黎明和黑暗。这一天是非常适合结婚的吉日,也适合清晰思考,并付诸行动。Akbal日的动物图腾是小鹿和金刚鹦鹉。

ben

3. Ben, or Aj in Kiche Maya, represents the Reed or Corn. It is the nawal of the home and children; on this day we give thanks for our home, our family and for the nourishment we are provided by the planet. Ben's animal totems are the armadillo and the bee.
Ben日(或者基切语中的Aj日)代表芦苇或玉米。它是表示家和孩子的日名。这一天,我们感谢自己的家庭和所在土地对自己的养育之恩。Ben日的动物图腾是穿山甲和蜜蜂。

caban

4. Caban, or N'oj in Kiche Maya, signifies ideas, wisdom, memory and patience. This is the nawal of intelligence; this daysign is therefore very useful in asking for creativity and the power of intellect to find solutions to challenges. Its animal totems are the woodpecker and the gazelle.
Caban日(或者基切语中的N’oj日)象征想法、智慧、记忆和耐心。这是表示智力的日名,因此对于祈求创造力和解决挑战的力量非常有帮助的。Caban日的动物图腾是啄木鸟和小羚羊。

cauac

5. Cauac, or Kawoq in Kiche Maya, is the sign of the Storm, in all of its forms and expressions, from a soft spring rain to a raging typhoon. This is the sign of the Divine Feminine and has a special connection with women and feminine energy. Its animal totems are the turtle and the puma.
Cauac日(或者基切语中的Kawoq日)是代表暴风雨的日名,包含了从绵绵春雨到呼啸台风所有形式在内。它是代表神圣女性的符号,和女性、女性力量有特殊的联系。Cauac日的动物图腾是海龟和美洲豹。

chicchan

6. Chicchan, or Kan in Kiche Maya, is the Feathered Serpent. This daysign is also the nawal of the creation of humans and of education and training. Chicchan has a strong connection to koyopa, the inner fire also known as kundalini, and thus provides a positive energy to build both physical and spiritual strength. Its animal totem is the serpent.
Chicchan日(或者基切语中的Kan日)是代表拥有翅膀的大毒蛇的日名,同样也是代表人类的创造、教育和训练的日名。Chicchan日和koyopa——即内心之火(又称为kundalini)——有着强烈的关系,因此它能为身体和精神的强壮提供一个正面能量。Chicchan日的动物图腾是大毒蛇。

chuen

7. Chuen, or B'atz' in Kiche Maya, is the day sign of the Monkey. This is the nawal of all arts and the artists—and as such, Chuen is the patron day sign of all creative expression, endeavor and achievement. It is often referred to as the "weaver of time," and is considered to be the best day to be married.
Chuen日(或者基切语中的B’atz’日)是代表猴子的日名,也是代表所有艺术和艺术家的日名。Chuen日是资助所有创造性表达、努力和成就的日名。它经常被看作是“时间编织者”,也是最适合结婚的好日子。

cib

8. Cib, or Ajmaq in Kiche Maya, signifies forgiveness. This is the day to communicate with our ancestors, whether to ask for forgiveness or advice. Cib is the nawal of the Earth, but also human faults and shortcomings. Its animal totem is the vulture.
Cib日(或者基切语中的Ajmaq日)象征原谅。这是和我们的祖先交流的一天,无论是祈求宽恕还是建议。Cib日也是表示大地、人类错误和缺点的日名。Cib日的动物图腾是秃鹰。

cimi

9. Cimi, or Kame in Kiche Maya, represents death and rebirth. For the Maya, death was an essential part of the sacred cycle of life, death and rebirth. The word "kame" means the present tense of the "eternal now." Cimi connects us with the ancestors and facilitates communication with other worlds. Its animal totem is the owl.
Cimi日(或者基切语中的Kame日)代表死亡和重生。对于玛雅人而已,死亡是生命神圣轮回(生、死、重生)的重要部分。”kame”这个词是“永恒的现在”的现在时态。Cimi日把我们和祖先联系在了一起,促进我们和另外世界的沟通。Cimi日的动物图腾是猫头鹰。

eb

10. Eb, or E in Kiche Maya, represents the Road. And as all roads do, this day sign symbolizes destiny, the path or journey of life, but also thanks and benediction. It is the nawal of roads and those who guide you upon your path; it is the patron of travelers and the most favorable day upon which to begin a journey. Eb's animal totems are the thrush and the bobcat.
Eb日(或者基切语中的E日)代表道路。就像所有的道路一样,这个日名象征命运或生命旅途,也象征着感恩和祝福。它是代表道路和那些指引你道路的人们的日名,是旅行者的守护神,是最有利于开启旅程的那一天。Eb日的动物图腾是画眉鸟和山猫。

etznab

11. Etznab, or Tijax in Kiche Maya, represents obsidian or flint, and embodies the energies of communication and eloquence, teaching, publicity, medicine and healing. For this reason it is an auspicious day for healing and healers. Its animal totem is the wolf.
Etznab日(或者基切语中的Tijax日)代表黑曜石或打火石,代表交流、雄辩的能力和教导、名声、医学和治愈。因此这一天是医治他人的吉利日子。Etznab日的动物图腾是狼。

ik

12. Ik', or Iq' in K'iche Maya, is the sign of the Wind. It signifies wind, moon, crisis. It is the nawal of the air and the moon, of the spirit of human existence. This is a strong day for the removal of negative energies and illnesses, including harmful psychological patterns. Ik's animal totems are the bobcat, the weasel and the hummingbird.
Ik’日(或者基切语中的Iq’日)是风的符号。它象征风、月亮和危机。它是空气、月亮、和人类存在的精神的日名。这一天是消除负面能量和疾病,包括有害的心理模式的好机会。Ik’日的动物图腾是山猫、黄鼠狼和蜂鸟。

imix

13. Imix, or Imox in K'iche Maya, is the nawal of the ocean, and its animal totems are dolphins, whales, fish and all sea creatures. This day sign embodies powerful energies for mental stability and health, and receiving messages from other dimensions. It also signifies cooperation and has a strong connection to water. Imix is traditionally considered, in the West, the first day sign of the uinal, but in practice the Maya consider Caban to be the initial daysign of the Tzolkin.
Imix日(或者基切语中的Imox日)是表示海洋的日名,它的动物图腾是海豚、鲸、鱼和所有海洋生物。这个日名体现了对精神稳定和健康的强大能量,以及接受其他方面的信息。它也代表合作,和水有着强烈的联系。Imix日在西方传统看来是第一个日名,但实际上玛雅人认为Caban日才是卓尔金历的首个日名。

ix

14. Ix, or I'x in Kiche Maya, represents the powerful Jaguar. One of the most enigmatic day signs in the Tzolk'in, Ix is the nawal of nature and Mayan altars. It embodies spirit, force, energy and vitality, and it is recommended to give thanks for special sacred places we create in our lives, on this day. Ix's animal totem is the jaguar.
Ix日(或者基切语中的I’x日)代表有力量的美洲虎。作为最神秘的日名之一,Ix日是自然和玛雅祭坛的日名。它代表精神、暴力、精力和活力,这一天适合对我们生命中创造出来的特殊圣地表达感谢。Ix日的动物图腾是美洲虎。

kan

15. Kan, or K'at in Kiche Maya, is the day sign of the Seed or Net. It signifies new offspring, the growth and prosperity of future generations and new crops. It is the nawal of the element of Fire, of prisons visible and invisible, and the symbol of the revered Ceiba tree. This is a good day to ask for abundance and the tangling and untangling of things physical, psychological and spiritual. Kan's animal totem is the lizard or alligator.
Kan日(或者基切语中的K’at日)是种子或者网的日名。它代表新的子孙、后代和庄稼的生长与繁荣。它是火元素和可见与不可见的监狱的日名,是受尊崇的木棉树的象征。这一天是祈求丰富、清理各种身体、心理和精神问题的好日子。Kan日的动物图腾是蜥蜴或者短吻鳄。

lamat

16. Lamat, or Q'anil in Kiche Maya, is a very fortunate day sign. It represents fertility and harvests, abundance and prosperity. It is the nawal of all kinds of seeds, and signifies the four colors of corn—red, white, yellow and black, which in turn stand for the four cardinal directions. A good day to plant the seeds of anything new, whether ideas, projects, or relationships. Lamat's animal totem is the rabbit.
Lamat日(或者基切语中的O’anil日)是一个非常幸运的日名。它代表富饶、丰收、丰富和繁荣。它是各种种子的日名,代表谷物的四种颜色:红、白、黄、黑,同时也代表四个基本方向。这一天适合播种任何种子、想法、开展项目或发展关系。Lamat日的动物图腾是兔子。

manik

17. Manik, or Kej in Kiche Maya, is one of the more powerful day signs in the Tzolk'in. It is the sign of the Deer and the nawal of all four-footed animals, the rainforest and the Mayan religion. It is also the nawal of the four corners of the Earth, and symbolizes the pillars of the universe. Manik is the day of the ajq'ijab, or Mayan priest; it represents power, force and authority. The animal totem of Manik is of course the Deer.
Manik日(或者基切语中的Kej日)是卓尔金历中最强大的日名之一。它是鹿、所有四肢动物、雨林和玛雅宗教的日名。它也是地球四角的日名,象征宇宙的支柱。Manik日是玛雅牧师的日子,它代表权力、力量和权威。Manik日的动物图腾当然是鹿。

men

18. Men, or Tz'ikin in Kiche Maya, represents the Eagle. It is the nawal of economic well-being and good fortune. This day sign endows us with success in business negotiations and material prosperity, but also in love. Its animal totems are the sacred Quetzal bird and the Eagle.
Men日(或者基切语中的Tz’ikin日)代表老鹰。它是经济健康和财富的日名。这个日名赐予我们商业谈判中的成功,物质和爱的繁荣。它的动物图腾是吓人的凤尾绿咬鹃和老鹰。

muluc

19. Muluc, or Toj in Kiche Maya, represents offering, payment, equilibrium and liberty. It is the nawal of two archetypal elements: Water and the Sacred Fire (as in the Mayan Fire Ceremony). Muluc helps us to acknowledge our karmic debts and balance out all disequilibrium still present in our lives. Its animal totems are the shark and the puma.
Muluc日(或者基切语中的Toj日)代表给与、偿还、均衡和自由。它是两个典型元素的日名:水和圣火(玛雅圣火典礼)。Muluc日帮助我们得知命运的负债和清楚生命中仍然存在的不平衡。它的动物图腾是鲨鱼和美洲豹。

oc

20. Oc, or Tz'i in Kiche Maya, is the day sign of the Dog. It represents justice, authority and vengeance; it is also the nawal of sexuality. Use the energy of Oc to resolve legal issues and to bring justice to be served. Oc's animal totems are the dog and the raccoon.
Oc日(或者基切语中的Tz’i日)是狗的日名。它代表公正、权威和复仇。同样也是性的日名。运用Oc日的力量去解决法律问题,伸张正义。Oc日的动物图腾是狗和浣熊。

新概念文化大爆炸系列汇总>>>