威士忌环丑闻

新概念三Lesson 24中我们学到了一个很形象的词组:a skeleton in cupboard,指的是家丑。俗话说得好,家丑不可外扬,小编不谈家丑,咱们来关注下美国政治史上的五大总统丑闻。

5. The Whiskey Ring 威士忌环丑闻

Ulysses S. Grant's presidency is often considered to be one of the most corrupt in history, and with good reason, as two major scandals took place during his presidency. The second was the Whiskey Ring scandal, involving a bribery and tax evasion scandal among many high ranking members of his cabinet (and even his own private secretary). It resulted in the impeachment of his secretary of war, William Belknap, although he resigned before he could be convicted.
尤利西斯·s·格兰特被认为是历史上最腐败的总统。这样的指责并不是毫无根据,因为在他的任期中发生了两个大丑闻。其中第二个丑闻就是著名的威士忌环丑闻:许多高级内阁成员(甚至他自己的私人秘书)都被指控犯有贿赂和逃税罪名。其结果是:尽管战争部长——威廉·贝拉纳普在被证明有罪之前已经辞职,这位战争部长还是受到了弹劾。

伊朗门

4. Iran-Contra 伊朗门

Iran-Contra is one of the biggest scandals to rock the presidency in modern times. When news that the Reagan administration was not only selling arms to Iran but using the profits to secretly fund the Contra rebels in Nicaragua, It caused a firestorm throughout the country. Admiral John M. Poindexter and Lt. Colonel Oliver North became the major targets of the scandal and became embroiled in lengthy trials. Fourteen other persons charged criminally in the whole affair. The scandal continues to be a black mark upon the Reagan presidency for many.
伊朗门是近代最为轰动的总统丑闻。当人们得知里根政府不仅向伊朗出售武器,甚至还利用获得的利润偷偷资助在尼拉加瓜的反叛军时,整个国家掀起了一场轩然大波。海军上将John M. Poindexter和中校Oliver North成为了众矢之的,他们两人不得不接受冗长的审判。而在整个事件中,还有其他14个人受到了法律控告。这次的丑闻也变成了里根总统任期中的巨大污点。

蒂波特山丑闻

3. Teapot Dome 蒂波特山丑闻

The Teapot Dome scandal of the Warren G. Harding administration has long been one of the poster boys of the world of presidential scandals. Harding transferred control of naval oil reserve lands over to the Department of the Interior in 1921 (although it was later reversed by the Supreme Court, who ruled the move illegal). Then Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall used his new power for personal gain, giving rights to the Teapot Dome Reserve in Wyoming to the Mammoth Oil company in return for bribes. When the scandal broke in 1924 he was found to have accumulated over $100,000 worth of bribes from the Mammoth Oil Company. Although Harding had already died in office prior to the scandal breaking, it became a hot topic of controversy for years after his death and continues to plague his now infamous legacy.
沃伦·G·哈定政府的蒂波特山丑闻也是美国历史上非常出名的丑闻之一。在1921年,哈定将海军油田从美国海军的名下转移到内政部的名下(虽然最后此次所有权转移被最高法院认定为非法并撤销)。内政部长Albert B. Fall滥用职权,在收受贿赂后将俄亥俄州的蒂波特山保留地的使用权卖给了猛犸石油公司。在1924年丑闻暴露后,人们发现这位内政部长已经从猛犸石油公司收受了总价值超过十万的贿赂。尽管丑闻是在哈定死后6个月才曝光,但在之后的几年,蒂波特山丑闻仍然引起了公众对哈定总统的巨大争议。同时,蒂波特山丑闻也另人们对总统遗产的来历产生了怀疑。

比尔克灵顿和莱温斯基

2. Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky 比尔克林顿和莱温斯基

Perhaps no other scandal in presidential history can equal the Monica Lewinsky affair for pure sensationalism and absurdity. President Bill Clinton's sexual affair with an intern ultimately led to the second presidential impeachment in the history of the country (the first was that of Andrew Johnson in 1868). Although Clinton was ultimately acquitted of any crime, the affair became a laughing stock around the world and led to one of the most unusual documents in political history: the Starr Report, which intimately and often graphically described Clinton's entire sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsy.
单从在轰动效应和荒谬程度上看,历史上也许没有其他的总统丑闻可以比得上莱温斯基事件。总统比尔·克林顿与实习生的绯闻事件最终导致了美国历史上第二次的总统弹劾(第一次是发生在1868年的总统安德鲁·约翰逊弹劾事件)。尽管克林顿最后被宣告无罪,这件事还是成了全世界的一个笑柄。同时也留下了历史上最不寻常的政治报告:史坦报告。这份报告详细生动地描述了克林顿与莫妮卡·莱温斯基的性丑闻。

水门事件

1. Watergate 水门事件

There may be many scandals in the annals of United States presidential history, but none can compare for sheer impact with that of the Watergate scandal under the presidency of Richard M. Nixon. It beginning with a break-in at the Democratic headquarters stationed in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. by five members of Nixon's re-election campaign. Although not initially involved Nixon found out about the break-in and did everything he did to cover up the scandal. When he was ultimately found out the news shocked the nation and led to a grand disillusionment with the American political system. It has also led to just about every subsequent presidential scandal, both large and small, gaining the suffix "gate."
在美国总统竞选史上有许多的丑闻,但没有一个的影响力能与在理查德·M·尼克松任期下的“水门事件”作比较。这个丑闻的开端是美国共和党尼克松竞选班子的5名顾问闯入位于华盛顿水门大厦的民主党全国委员会办公室。虽然最初事件不涉及尼克松,但他得知这次的非法闯入被发现后,所做的一切却都是为了掩饰丑闻。此事件震惊了全国并导致了人们对美国的政治体制的幻灭。同时也导致几乎随后所有的总统丑闻,不论是大丑闻还是小丑闻,都被称之为“门”。