Devil’s Tower, the first national monument in America, could almost be mistaken for the stump of an enormous tree. Its sheer rock sides sweep up from a broad base until they cut off abruptly at the flat summit. Rising more than 1,000 feet in the middle of the gently rolling plains of Wyoming, the massive column of rock, looks as though it was dropped down into this location from a different time and place.
In a sense, it was, Devil’s Tower is a relic of the past. When the molten rock of the earth’s core forced its way to the surface to form the throat of a volcano, as the centuries passed, the rock cooled and hardened, shrinking and cracking into long columns, born in fire and fury. Devil’s Tower was then shaped by the slow, gentle work of wind and water. The outer layers of the volcano were worn away until the hard core stood completely exposed.
It is small wonder that an Indian legend described Devil’s Tower as being formed by supernatural powers. The legend says that when seven girls were attacked by bears, they took refuge on top of a small rock, and they appealed to the Rock God for help. The God caused the rock to grow and to lift the girls far above the ground, while it sides were scored by the claws of the angry bears. Even today, says the legend, the girls can be seen above the towering rock. As seven shining stars in the night sky.
9. What does the Devil’s Tower look like?
10. What cause the volcano’s outer layers to wear away?
11. What does the Indian legend say about the Devil’s Tower?
12. How did the Rock God help the seven girl in the Indian legend?
It’s no accident that most gas stations have convenience stores attached. Few of us can fill up the tank without buying a few snacks, cigarettes，soft drinks or other items we can live without. I deserve it. That’s what hard working men and women say to justify their lavish vacations, big stereo systems or regular restaurant meals. They do deserve such indulgences. However, they also deserve a home of their own--a secure retirement and freedom from worrying about unpaid bills. No one should have to live with what a Texas mother described as constant stress，tension, even fear about money. Sadly the pleasure that comes from extravagances often disappears long before the bills do. The video camera that one single mother bought for a special occasion, for example, is not much fun now. She’s figured out that it will take her another three years to pay it off at $30 a month. And the New Yorkers who spent a bundle on an outdoor hot tub now admit they rarely use it, because we can't afford to heat it in winter. The solution set priorities add up the annual cost of each item. Then consider what else you can buy with the same money. That will help you decide which items are really worth it. One Chicago woman, for example, discovered that daily lunches with coworkers cost her $2000 a year; she decided to take lunch to work instead. “I now put $20 a week into my vacation fund and another 20 into retirement savings, she says, those mean more to me than lunch”.
Q13. What does the speaker say about drivers who stop at gas stations?
Q14. What does the speaker say about extravagances?
Q15. What does a speaker want to show by the example of the Chicago woman?