单项填空做题技巧——还原法
高考一些单项选择题的测试点本来十分简单,但命题者有意把题干复杂,改写为一个少见或陌生的结构。对于这类题,我们可以反其道而行之,把题干还原为自己熟悉的结构,这样题目就会变得简单,答案就会一目了然,具体来说,可采用以下几种方法:
 
一、将倒装句改成陈述句
由于倒装句的使用,句子的结构变得陌生,对于这类题,可将题干还原成一个陈述句。。如:Who did the teacher _______ an article for the school newspaper?
A. has write         B. has written        C. have write        D. have written
【分析】把本题题干改成陈述句,则应是: The teacher had who write an article for the school newspaper. 这样我们一眼就可以看出答案为C。测试的知识点是使役动词have的宾语补足语用省去to 的宾语补足语用省去的动词不定式,表示将要发生的动作。
 
二、将陈述句改为倒装句
我们首次接触时是一个倒装句,而命题者恰恰是有意地使用陈述句来命题。如:We had _______ left home than it began to rain
A. no sooner          B. hardly             C. almost              D. nearly
nearly【分析】no sooner...than是一个大家十分熟悉的句型。在考察知识点时,命题者却使用了一个陈述句。如果把题干改成:_______ had we left home than it began to rain,这道题的答案A也就变得十分清楚了。

 三、将从句或插入语去掉
命题者有意地在一个句子中间插入一个从句或插入语,造成主谓隔离。如果将题干中的从句或插入语去掉,题干就会变得很简单。如:The person we spoke to ___no answer at first.A. make  B .making  C. makes   D. made分析;可以看出we spoke to是一个定语从句。将其去掉后,我们就会发现这个句子少了一个谓语动词。故本题选用D。
 
四、将被动句改为主动句由于被动句的使用,句子的结构相对于主动句来说就没有那么清楚。我们如果将其改为主动句,这类题就会变得清楚的多。
如:Time should be made good use of ________our lessons well.A. learning             B. learned                C. to learn               D. learns
【分析】将题干改写为主动句则:We should make good use of time _______our lesson well。可以发现介词of有其相应的宾语,其后不能再用动名词做宾语,应选不定式做目的状语。答案是C。
 
五、将省略句改为完整的句子
省略句使考生不易看清句子的结构。对于这类试题,可恢复被省略的成分,使句子的结构变得明朗,进而选择合适的答案。如:—How long has China been open to the world? —_______1979.A. After                  B. In                        C. Since                  D. From
【分析】将答语部分改为一个完整的句子:China has been open to the world since 1979. 在所给的选项中只有since能和现在完成时连用。故答案为C。。 

六、将强调句的it be和that去掉还原成一个单句
It was in the small house _______ was built with stone by his father _______ he spent his childhood.A. which , that           B. that , which        C.which , which        D. that ,where
【分析】可将题干还原成一个陈述句:He spent his childhood in the small house which was built with stone by his father. 故答案为A。
 
七、将疑问句还原为陈述句
Is this book _______ you have been looking for all the time﹖A. that                     B. one                      C. the one                 D. it
【分析】首先把疑问句还原成陈述句,题干即为This book is _______ you have been looking for all the time.首先把疑问句还原成陈述句,题干即为